Waist circumference was positively correlated with systolic and d

Waist circumference was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostatic model assessment method, and find more albumin in female chimpanzees and with triglyceride in female and male chimpanzees. Body weight was correlated significantly with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in female chimpanzees and triglyceride in male chimpanzees. Male chimpanzees were heavier and had lower diastolic

blood pressure, greater creatinine, albumin, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin values than did female chimpanzees. The relationships between waist circumference and blood pressure and triglyceride are consistent with those reported in humans and other primate species. In conclusion, our study is the first work to demonstrate a relationship between waist circumference and metabolic risk

factors in chimpanzees. Results demonstrated that waist circumference was associated with more metabolic risk factors than was body weight, particularly in female chimpanzees.”
“Dos from Escherichia coli is a bacterial gas sensor protein comprising a heme-containing gas PKC inhibitor sensor domain and a phosphodiesterase catalytic domain. Using a combination of static light scattering and gel filtration experiments, we established that, as are many other sensor proteins, the full-length protein is dimeric. The full-length dimer (association constant < 10 nM) is more stable than the dimeric heme domain (association constant similar to 1 mu M), and the dimer interface presumably includes both sensor and catalytic domains. Ultrafast spectroscopic studies showed little influence of the catalytic domain on kinetic processes in the direct vicinity of the heme. By contrast, the properties of ligand (CO and O(2)) binding to the heme in the sensor domain, occurring on a microsecond to second time scale, were found to be influenced by (i)

LY2603618 molecular weight the presence of the catalytic domain, (ii) the dimerization state, and in dimers, (iii) the ligation state of the other subunit. These results imply allosteric interactions within dimers. Steady-state titrations demonstrated marked cooperativity in oxygen binding to both the full-length protein and the isolated heme domain, a feature not reported to date for any dimeric sensor protein. Analysis of a variety of time-resolved experiments showed that Met-95 plays a major role in the intradimer interactions. The intrinsic binding and dissociation rates of Met-95 to the heme were modulated similar to 10-fold by intradimer and sensor-catalytic domain interactions. Dimerization effects were also observed for cyanide binding to the ferric heme domains, suggesting a similar role for Met-95 in ferric proteins.

“Fire effects on invasive species are an important land ma

“Fire effects on invasive species are an important land management issue in areas subjected to prescribed fires as well as wildfires. These effects on invasive species can be manifested across life stages. The liana Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) is a widespread invader of eastern US habitats including those where fire management is in practice. This study examined if prescribed fire makes these

habitats more susceptible to invasion of C orbiculatus by seed at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Four treatments (control, litter removed, high and low intensity GSK1120212 research buy fire) were applied in six habitat types (sand savanna/woodland, sand prairie, moraine prairie, sand oak forest, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forest) and germinating seedlings were tracked over two growing seasons. Treatment did not have a significant effect on the germination, survival, or biomass of C orbiculatus. However, habitat type did influence these responses mostly in the first growing season. Moraine prairie, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forests had the greatest peak percentage of

germinants. Moraine prairie had significantly greater survival Elacridar manufacturer than oak forest and savanna habitats. Control plots with intact litter, and the moraine prairie habitat had the tallest seedlings at germination, while tallest final heights and greatest aboveground biomass were highest in oak forest. Thus, fire and litter removal did not increase the susceptibility of these habitats to germination and survival of C orbiculatus. These results indicate that most eastern US habitats are vulnerable to invasion by this species via seed regardless of the level or type of disturbance to the litter layer. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The distribution of the genus Orobanche in SE Poland is presented. The FK506 mouse study area stretches between the Vistula and the Bug rivers, and comprises the Polish areas of the Lublin-Lwow Upland, the Wolyn Upland and the southern part of Polesie.

Eight species of the genus Orobanche: O. alba, O. alsatica, O. arenaria, O. caryophyllacea, O. elatior, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, O. picridis, were collected during floristic investigations conducted between 1999 and 2010. The hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the localities are given and a supplemented map of the distribution in SE Poland is included.”
“Background: The Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) was recently developed to measure health-related decrements in ability to perform job roles among employed individuals. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a Japanese version of the WLQ. Methods: Developing the Japanese version of the WLQ involved translations, back-translations, and a pilot study. Using data obtained from a nationwide survey, 4,600 people aged bigger than = 20 years were selected from the entire population of Japan by stratified random sampling.

We formulate this optimization problem as a linear integer progra

We formulate this optimization problem as a linear integer programming problem. The method was evaluated on two EEG/fNIRS caps. We simulated absorbers at different locations on a head model and generated realistic optical density maps on the scalp. We found that the maps of optimal SD montages had spatial resolution properties comparable to those of regular SD arrangements for the whole head with significantly fewer sensors than

regular SD arrangements. In addition, we observed that optimal montages yielded improved spatial density of fNIRS measurements over the targeted regions together with an increase in signal-to-noise ratio. (C) 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)”
“The aim of the study AZD4547 was to investigate the serum ABT-737 Apoptosis inhibitor and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration at a dose of 10 mgkg(-1). Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the third and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to the respective

serum samples. In the muscles, enrofloxacin concentrations were also higher compared with the respective Selleck Lapatinib serum samples. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were lower and showed smaller variations in all investigated tissues. The serum and tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in common carp showed two peaks, with the

first C-max at the third hour after drug administration as in rainbow trout. Concentrations of both investigated substances were higher in the liver than in the serum. The differences in common carp were less pronounced in comparison with rainbow trout. Relatively high levels of both substances were found in the muscles. Seven days after treatment enrofloxacin concentrations in the serum and tissues were within the therapeutic levels for most of the sensitive microorganisms in trout. Lower concentrations of its metabolite ciprofloxacin were found in the investigated tissues at the last sampling point. Lower levels of both substances were found in carp.”
“In this study, metal threads from Romanian religious embroideries and precious velvet brocades dated from 15th to 18th century were analyzed by using IBA methods (PIXE and RBS) which, in comparison to the traditional analytical techniques (XRF, EDS), allowed the detection of their structures and accurate identification of the trace elements (detection limits of few tens of ppm).

The results showed that the downregulation of 14-3-3 sigma and Ma

The results showed that the downregulation of 14-3-3 sigma and Maspin and the upregulation of GRP78 and Mn-SOD were significantly correlated with NPC radioresistance and the combination of the four proteins achieved KPT-8602 solubility dmso a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% in discriminating radiosensitive from radiaoresistant NPC. Furthermore, the resistance to ionizing radiation can be partially reversed by the overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma in the CNE2-IR. The data suggest that

14-3-3 sigma, Maspin, GRP78, and Mn-SOD are potential biomarkers for predicting NPC response to radiotherapy and their dysregulation may be involved in the radioresistance of NPC. Cancer Res; 70(9); 3450-62. (C) 2010 AACR.”
“Eradication of minimal residual disease (MRD) after allotransplantation in persons with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is associated with lower rates of relapse. Rapid engraftment of donor lymphocyte elements can contribute to MRD control, but it remains unclear whether this strategy will benefit selleckchem patients. In this study, we report the incidence of MRD eradication and graft-versus-host

disease (GvHD) in persons with rapid versus later donor T lymphocyte engraftment after lymphodepleting chemotherapy and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allotransplantation. Twenty-seven subjects received lymphodepleting chemotherapy to facilitate donor engraftment followed by fludarabine and cyclophosphamide RIC and a blood cell allograft. MRD was monitored by multicolor flow cytometry after transplantation. Complete donor T lymphoid chimerism (TLC) and myeloid chimerism (MC) were achieved in 25 subjects at a median of Selleck Roscovitine 28 days (range, 14-60 days) and 21 days (range, 14-180 days), respectively. Achieving complete donor TLC by day 14 versus day 28 or later correlated with occurrence

of grade 2 or higher acute GvHD (90% [95% confidence interval CI, 78-100%] versus 35% [95% CI, 16-54%]; p = 0.014) and better control of MRD in the bone marrow at day 100, median 0% (range, 0-0.1%) versus 8.5% (range, 0-92%; p = 0.016). Among 11 persons with early donor TLC, none had progressive disease, and seven died of treatment -related mortality (TRM). In persons with later development of TLC, 8 of 16 had progressive disease and 2 died of TRM. Time to donor myeloid chimerism had no effect on outcomes. Rapid establishment of donor TLC resulted in more complete eradication of early MRD, but greater incidence of acute GvHD and TRM in persons with CLL undergoing RIC allotransplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells.”
“The purpose of this study was to determine if the ingestion of sodium citrate (CIT) alters blood levels of fluid and electrolyte regulatory hormones at rest and during exercise.

In vivo studies showed fast blood clearance of labeled peptides a

In vivo studies showed fast blood clearance of labeled peptides and rapid excretion, performed mainly by renal pathway. In addition, biodistribution and imaging studies showed low abdominal accumulation and significant and specific tumor uptake of 177Lu-labeled derivatives.\n\nConclusions. The derivative with longer spacer holds a higher potential as radiopharmaceutical for prostate tumor diagnosis and the derivatives with shorter spacers are potential radiopharmaceuticals AZD8186 for prostate tumor treatment.”

Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are aquatic insects living on the water surface. They are equipped with four compound eyes, an upper pair viewing above the water surface and a lower submerged pair viewing beneath

the water surface, but little is known about how their visual brain centers (optic lobes) are organized to serve such unusual eyes. We show here, for the first time, the peculiar optic lobe organization of the larval and adult whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus.\n\nResults: The divided compound eyes of adult whirligig beetles supply optic lobes that are split into two halves, an upper half and lower half, comprising an upper and lower lamina, an upper and lower medulla and a bilobed partially split lobula. However, the lobula plate, a neuropil that in flies is known to be ALK inhibitor involved in mediating stabilized flight, exists only in conjunction with the lower lobe of the lobula. We show that, as in another group of predatory beetle larvae, in the whirligig beetle the aquatic larva precociously develops a lobula plate equipped with wide-field neurons. It is supplied by three larval laminas serving the three dorsal larval stemmata, which are adjacent to the developing upper compound eye.\n\nConclusions: buy BVD-523 In adult whirligig beetles, dual optic neuropils serve the upper aerial eyes and the lower subaquatic eyes. The exception is the lobula plate. A lobula plate develops precociously in the larva where it is supplied by inputs from three larval stemmata that have a frontal-upper field of view, in which contrasting objects such as prey items trigger a

body lunge and mandibular grasp. This precocious lobula plate is lost during pupal metamorphosis, whereas another lobula plate develops normally during metamorphosis and in the adult is associated with the lower eye. The different roles of the upper and lower lobula plates in supporting, respectively, larval predation and adult optokinetic balance are discussed. Precocious development of the upper lobula plate represents convergent evolution of an ambush hunting lifestyle, as exemplified by the terrestrial larvae of tiger beetles (Cicindelinae), in which activation of neurons in their precocious lobula plates, each serving two large larval stemmata, releases reflex body extension and mandibular grasp.”
“A newly created multivitamin possesses many protective health functions.

Results MB stained the gastric mucosa blue; this tint could be s

Results. MB stained the gastric mucosa blue; this tint could be seen through the intact mucosal layer exposed via myotomy. Dye extravasation was seen during OICR-9429 laparoscopic surgery with mucosal perforations of 1.2 mm and greater with or without air insufflation of the stomach. Air extravasation was seen with perforations of 2.0 mm and greater. Conclusion. Full strength 1% MB dye instilled into the gastric lumen can potentially be used as a marker for detection of mucosal perforations of 1.2 mm or greater during

laparoscopic pyloromyotomy.”
“Mutations in the complement factor H gene (CFH) region associate with renal-limited mesangial proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis including IgA nephropathy (IgAN), dense deposit disease (DDD) and C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). Lack of kidney biopsies could lead to under diagnosis of CFH-associated end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in African Americans (AAs), with incorrect

attribution to other causes. A prior genome-wide association study in AAs with non-diabetic ESKD implicated an intronic CFH single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Thirteen CFH SNPs (8 exonic, 2 synonymous, 2 3′UTR, and the previously associated intronic variant rs379489) were tested for association with common forms of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetes-associated (T2D) ESKD in 3770 AAs (1705 with non-diabetic ESKD, 1305 with T2D-ESKD, 760 controls). Most cases lacked kidney biopsies; those with known IgAN, DDD or C3GN were excluded. Adjusting for age, gender, ancestry and apolipoprotein L1 gene risk variants, single SNP analyses detected 6 CFH SNPs (5 exonic and the intronic variant) as significantly associated with non-diabetic ESKD (P = 0.002-0.01), three of SBI-0206965 mouse these SNPs were also associated with T2D-ESKD. Weighted CFH locus-wide Sequence Kernel Association Testing (SKAT) in non-diabetic ESKD (P = 0.00053) and T2D-ESKD (P = 0.047) confirmed significant evidence of association. CFH was associated with commonly reported etiologies of ESKD in the CFTR inhibitor AA population. These results suggest that a subset of cases with ESKD clinically ascribed to the effects of hypertension

or glomerulosclerosis actually have CFH-related forms of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Genetic testing may prove useful to identify the causes of renal-limited kidney disease in patients with ESKD who lack renal biopsies.”
“Objective: We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. Methods: For this study, we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri-and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples and picture stories to elicit narrative competences.

Our results support the hypothesis that MtF transsexuals are char

Our results support the hypothesis that MtF transsexuals are characterized by higher proneness to psychopathology than the general population and show a more immature level of psychological functioning than FtM transsexuals. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD52 to deplete circulating T and B lymphocytes; lymphocyte depletion is followed by a distinctive pattern of T- LY3039478 and B-cell repopulation, changing the balance of the immune system. This review reports the efficacy and safety findings of the phase 2 CAMMS223 trial and

the phase 3 CARE-MS I and II trials investigating alemtuzumab for the treatment of active relapsing-remitting MS. Alemtuzumab, administered intravenously, was shown to improve relapse rate versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients who were treatment-naive (CAMMS223 and CARE-MS I) or had relapsed on prior therapy (CARE-MS II),

and to reduce sustained accumulation of disability (CAMMS223 and CARE-MS II). Important adverse events were infusion-associated reactions, serious infections and autoimmune AZD7762 mw events. A safety monitoring program allowed for early detection and management of autoimmune events. Recommendations for the monitoring of adverse events are made. Alemtuzumab’s mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics and opportunities for future research are discussed.”
“Purpose: To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor-A ( VEGF-A) isoforms in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods: Choroidal neovascular membranes (CNV) were excised in 24 patients, 8 of them underwent previous photodynamic therapy.

All procedures were performed before anti-VEGF therapies were implemented in Germany. Normal human donor eyes served as controls. Messenger RNA expression of total VEGF-A and VEGF-A isoforms was measured. Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A(121) is the most abundant isoform selleck screening library in CNV and control tissues. In controls, VEGF-A(121) is lowest in neural retina and highest in choroids. For total VEGF-A and VEGF-A(165), this is vice versa. VEGF-A(165) and VEGF-A(189) are significantly higher in CNV than in control choroids, the opposite is found for VEGF-A(121). After photodynamic therapy, total VEGF-A and VEGF-A(121) are increased, VEGF-A(165) and VEGF-A(189) are decreased. Age-dependently, there is an increase in VEGF-A(165) and a decrease in VEGF-A(121). Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A isoforms are differentially distributed, suggesting that tissue-specific regulation of various isoforms is physiologically important. The disruption of this homeostasis in CNV membranes may be significant in the onset and progression of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Since effective disease-specific treatments, including enzyme rep

Since effective disease-specific treatments, including enzyme replacement therapy and stem cell transplantation, have become available for certain LSDs and timely initiation of these treatments is necessary to prevent the development of severe, disabling and irreversible manifestations, early diagnosis has become essential. The challenge

is to raise awareness for better recognition of the presenting signs and symptoms of LSDs by all doctors who may encounter these patients, including rheumatologists.”
“Cardioviruses learn more have a unique 2A protein (143 aa). During genome translation, the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2A is released through a ribosome skipping event mitigated through C-terminal this website 2A sequences and by subsequent N-terminal reaction with viral 3C(pro). Although viral replication is

cytoplasmic, mature 2A accumulates in nucleoli shortly after infection. Some protein also transiently associates with cytoplasmic 40S ribosomal subunits, an activity contributing to inhibition of cellular cap-dependent translation. Cardiovirus sequences predict an eIF4E binding site (aa 126-134) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 91-102), within 2A, both of which are functional during EMCV infection. Point mutations preventing eIF4E:2A interactions gave small-plaque phenotype viruses, but still inhibited cellular cap-dependent translation. Deletions within the NLS motif relocalized 2A to the cytoplasm and abrogated the inhibition of cap-dependent translation. A fusion protein linking the 2A NLS to eGFP was sufficient to redirect the reporter to the nucleus but not into nucleoli. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Frontal Proteasome inhibitor sinus fractures constitute 5% to 12% of all facial fractures. The optimal management of frontal sinus fractures is controversial but involves preserving the function of the nasofrontal ducts when feasible. We reviewed

the postoperative complications of a series of 43 patients treated surgically for frontal sinus fractures.\n\nMaterials and Methods: The data from 43 patients treated from 2000 to 2006 were reviewed. The information reviewed included patient age and gender, mechanism of injury, type of frontal sinus injury, associated facial injuries, treatment method, and complications. The institutional review board approved the present study.\n\nResults: The average patient age was 32.5 years; 36 were men and 7 were women. Of the 43 patients, 23 (53.5%) had had anterior table fractures and 20 (46.5%) had had both anterior and posterior table fractures. Postoperative complications occurred in 7 patients (16.3%). Of these 7 patients, 2 experienced continued headache and pain and required surgical removal of infected hardware, 3 also experienced frequent headaches and pain in the frontal-temporal region, 1 had a post-traumatic deformity, and 1 developed periorbital cellulitis and abscess formation within the frontal sinus.

To avoid tumor dissemination, we have utilized a “non-touch”

To avoid tumor dissemination, we have utilized a “non-touch”

method for surgical resection of GIST since 2000.\n\nForty-two patients with gastric GIST were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2012. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach was used as the standard procedure for tumors that were 2-5 cm in size. Tumors larger than 5 cm were treated with open surgery. Our non-touch procedure included a lesion-lifting method using traction sutures at the normal stomach wall around the tumor. Intraoperative gastroscopy was utilized to confirm the location of the tumor with laparoscopy. After lifting of the tumor, tumors with a clear operative margin were resected using a linear stapler. Tumors located at the Selleckchem AS1842856 posterior wall of the stomach or located near the esophagogastric Selleck ABT-263 junction were resected

using traction sutures.\n\nMedian operative time was 140 min and median blood loss was 0 ml. Postoperative course was uneventful excepting one patient who experienced postoperative bleeding. The median postoperative stay was 7 days. One patient developed liver metastasis after surgery. None of the patients had local recurrence or peritoneal recurrence case.\n\nThis non-touch lesion-lifting method was useful for the surgical management of gastric GIST.”
“Background:\n\nHandheld mobile phones (MPHs) have become a ‘cultural’ accessory device, no less so than a wrist watch. Nevertheless, the use of MPHs has given rise to Bafilomycin A1 chemical structure great concern because of possible adverse health effects from exposure to the radiofrequency

radiation (RFR) emitted by the device. Previous studies suggested correlation between MPH and salivary gland tumors.\n\nObjective:\n\nTo evaluate whether MPH induces physiologic changes in the adjacent parotid gland, located on the dominant side, in terms of secretion rates and protein levels in the secreted saliva.\n\nMaterials and method:\n\nStimulated parotid saliva was collected simultaneously from both glands in 50 healthy volunteers whose MPH use was on a dominant side of the head.\n\nResults:\n\nA significantly higher saliva secretion rate was noticed in the dominant MPH side compared with that in the non-dominant side. Lower total protein concentration was obtained in the dominant compared with the non-dominant MPH side among the right dominant MPH users.\n\nConclusions:\n\nParotid glands adjacent to handheld MPH in use respond by elevated salivary rates and decreased protein secretion reflecting the continuous insult to the glands. This phenomenon should be revealed to the worldwide population and further exploration by means of large-scale longitudinal studies is warranted.”
“Surface microcoils are utilized in micro magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for the purpose of resolution enhancement and small sample analysis.

However, the mechanism of tissue optical clearing is not much cle

However, the mechanism of tissue optical clearing is not much clear for the complex interaction between tissues and OCAs. In this work, Intralipid was mixed with different concentrations of OCAs, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,2-propanediol, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) and poly-ethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Except for PEG200 and PEG400 that make aggregation of particles, the others kept the mixture uniform. The reduced scattering coefficients of uniform mixtures were predicted with Mie theory and measured by a commercially available spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. The results show that all of LDN-193189 the OCAs used enhance the optical clearing effect of Intralipid. If

OCAs do not change the structure of Intralipid, Mie theory prediction matches well with the measurements. And the higher the refractive index of OCA, the smaller the reduced scattering coefficient. A simple formula deduced can quantitatively predict the optical clearing effect caused by OCAs. This work is helpful for clarifying the mechanism of tissue optical clearing, which will make the effect of optical clearing of tissue predictable and controllable.”
“Chitosan (CS) with different viscosity was investigated as a modifier of talc which was used to improve

the strength properties and filler retention in high click here filler content papers. The particle size and morphology of the resulting modified talc were https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cftrinh-172.html studied to confirm the successful modification. The zeta potential and coating amount of the CS modified talc were also investigated. It was found that CS viscosity was a critical factor for the filler modification and final paper properties. When high viscosity CS was applied, the resulting tensile strength of filled paper was 64% higher than that of unmodified talc at the filler content of 37% as well as maintained favorable optical properties. Furthermore, with the filler loading of 70% (based on the solid fiber weight), compared with that

of unmodified talc, filler retention of modified talc was increased by 39%, while the drainage was little influenced. The field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed a better bonding capacity between modified talc and fibers than that of untreated talc. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013″
“Endogenous levels of IAA, ABA and four types of CKs were analyzed in zygotic and indirect (ISE) and direct somatic embryogenesis of Acca sellowiana. Zygotic and somatic embryos at different developmental stages were sampled for morphological and hormonal analysis. Both embryo types showed substantial asymmetry in hormone levels. Zygotic embryos displayed a conspicuous peak of IAA in early developmental stages. The results outlined the hormonal variations occurring during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis regarding the timing, nature and hormonal status involved in both processes.