These findings suggest that Th17-related cytokines can contribute

These findings suggest that Th17-related cytokines can contribute to recall-like expansion and effector function of Ag-specific gamma delta T cells after infection or vaccination.”
“Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) emerges as a crucial player in tumor progression. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially its relation with global DNA methylation MK-2206 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor patterns in HCC under hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not completely understood. Methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) maintains the homeostasis

of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a critical marker of genomic methylation status. In this study, we investigated the link between HIF-1 alpha and MAT2A as a mechanism responsible for the change in genomic DNA methylation patterns in liver cancer under hypoxia conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia induces genomic DNA demethylation in CpG islands by reducing the steady-state SAM level both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, HIF-1 alpha and MAT2A expression is correlated with tumor size and TNM stage of liver cancer tissues. We further showed that hypoxia-induced MAT2A expression is HIF-1 alpha dependent and requires the recruitment of p300 and HDAC1.

We also identified an authentic consensus HIF-1 alpha binding site in MAT2A promoter by site-directed mutagenesis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we show for the first time that hypoxia induces genomic DNA demethylation through the activation of HIF-1 alpha and transcriptional upregulation of MAT2A in hepatoma cells. These 4SC-202 findings provide new

insights into our understanding of the molecular link between genomic DNA methylation and tumor hypoxia in HCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 10(6); 1113-23. (C)2011 AACR.”
“HpdR, an IcIR-family regulator in Streptomyces coelicolor, is a substrate-dependent repressor for the tyrosine catabolic gene hppD. In this study, Si nuclease protection assays revealed that hpdR is subject to a negative autoregulation. Purified HpdR showed specific 10058-F4 mouse DNA-binding activity for the promoter region of hpdR, indicating that the autoregulation of hpdR is performed directly. The disruption of hpdR led to reduced production of CDA by S. coelicolor J1501, suggesting a positive effect of hpdR on CDA biosynthesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that HpdR specifically bound to the promoter region of hmaS (SCO3229 in the CDA gene cluster), encoding 4-hydroxymandelic acid synthase. Disruption of hmaS in 11501 abolished CDA production. It is possible that hpdR regulates CDA biosynthesis by controlling the transcription of hmaS.”
“Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting a new animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing systematic reviews of animal research. In practice, finding all animal studies relevant to a specific research question turns out to be anything but simple.

007; odds ratio: 0 38, 95% confidence interval: 0 18 to 0 79) Th

007; odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18 to 0.79). The number needed to treat to avoid 1 case of angiographic ISR was 6 (95% confidence interval: 3.4 to 18.7). The results were similar for IVUS-defined ISR (odds ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.22 to 0.81; number needed to treat = 5). Lumen area loss was 1.6 mm(2) (interquartile range: 1.0 to 2.9 mm(2)) in colchicine-treated patients and 2.9 mm(2) (interquartile range: 1.4 to 4.8 mm(2)) in the control group (p = 0.002). Selleckchem AG14699 Treatment-related adverse events were largely limited to gastrointestinal symptoms.\n\nConclusions Colchicine is associated with less neointimal hyperplasia and a decreased ISR rate

when administered to diabetic patients after PCI with a BMS. This observation may prove useful in patients undergoing PCI in whom implantation of a drug-eluting stent is contraindicated or undesirable. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 61: 1679-85) Rapamycin chemical structure (C) 2013 by the American College

of Cardiology Foundation”
“To compare the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment and pharmacotherapy with that of pharmacotherapy alone in sudden deafness (SD) patients, and to evaluate the impact of therapeutic time window on the therapeutic effect, a total of 264 patients with SD were assigned into HBO group and control group. Patients in the HBO group received routine pharmacotherapy and HBO treatment, and those in the control group were only routinely treated with drugs. Acoustic impedance measurement and pure tone audiometry were performed before and after treatment. The hearing after treatment at different QNZ manufacturer time windows was compared with that before treatment. The overall efficacy in the HBO group was significantly superior to that of the control group (P <

0.05). The treatment initiated within 24 h after onset of SD achieved favorable outcome (P < 0.05) and that initiated at 24 h to 2 weeks acquired acceptable efficacy (P < 0.05) in both groups. However, the efficacy in the HBO group was better than that in the control group at both time windows (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the treatment initiated at 2 weeks after symptom onset could not achieve satisfactory efficacy (P > 0.05). The results demonstrated that the efficacy of HBO combined treatment was superior to that of routine pharmacotherapy for SD patients, and HBO treatment can favorably improve the hearing of these patients. HBO treatment initiated early after symptom onset (<2 weeks) is recommended, and that initiated 2 weeks after symptom onset predicts a poor outcome.”
“The present paper explores the correlation between fracto-mechanoluminescence and fracture of solids and thereby provides a clear understanding of the physics of fracto-mechanoluminescence.

Future (randomized) trials are required to determine which consti

Future (randomized) trials are required to determine which constitutes the best option for emergency department (fracture) and operating room (surgical fixation) settings.”
“The aim of this study was to determine the basic

economic parameters of honey production, export and import in Croatia and worldwide. We also estimated the market value of Croatian beekeeping as a whole for the year 2007. The most marketable bee product is honey, but its value is many times smaller than the value of pollination that bees deliver to our ecosystem. Besides that, there is also the positive influence of the beekeeping activities oil human health since they are bound to dwelling in the natural surroundings. The largest honey producers of the world, for the period 2002-2007 were, in descending order: China, Argentina, Turkey, the USA and Ukraine. The largest world honey exporters in the same period were Argentina, China, Mexico, Germany and Hungary, and largest importers were the USA, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and France. Germany is not only a large importer but also a large honey exporter. A trend analysis of the number of beehives in Croatia from 1967-2007 (variable x2) shows with 95% certainty that in the year 2015 the number of beehives in

Croatia will be somewhere between 64.80 and 151.20 thousand. The predicted value for the same

year for honey production (variable x3) is somewhere between 1,640 and 2,360 tons, and for per hive honey production (variable x4) between 16,34 and 20.87 kg. The total VX-680 chemical structure market value of the Croatian beekeeping industry in 2007 was estimated Selleck 3-MA at 28.55 million E (214.09 million HRK).”
“A new Schiff base ligand, 1,6-Bis(2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-4-chlorophenoxy)hexane was synthesized. Some Schiff metal complexes of the new Schiff base were prepared by the reaction of some metal salts and the Schiff base. The complexes are non-electrolytes as shown by their molar conductivities (Lambda M). The structures of metal complexes are proposed from elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductivity measurements, mass spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis. In addition theoretical H-1 NMR, HOMO-LUMO studies of the ligand; antimicrobial and cyclic voltammetric studies of the compounds were also carried out. In this study antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the compounds were examined via in vitro methods. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“By hybridization and backcrossing, alleles can surmount species boundaries and be incorporated into the genome of a related species. This introgression of genes is of particular evolutionary relevance if it involves the transfer of adaptations between populations.

“Background: New and clinically useful markers of cardiova

“Background: New and clinically useful markers of cardiovascular risk are of essence in type 2 diabetes since ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death in these patients. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 476 men and 244 women who participated in “Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes -a Prospective study in Primary care” study. All participants

had type 2 diabetes and were 55-66 years old at recruitment during year 2005 to 2008. Except for established traditional risk markers selleck screening library for vascular disease, we also estimated vascular complications non-invasively by performance of carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV, with applanation-tonometry) and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries (IMT, with B-mode ultrasound). Patients were followed for incidence of ischemic heart disease mortality and morbidity until end of the year 2012, using the national Swedish Cause of Death and Hospitalization Registries. Results: During the follow-up period of a median of 6 years 47 men and 10 women find more died or were hospitalized for ischemic heart disease including myocardial infarction. Leptin levels were positively related to the hazard ratio (HR) in men (HR for each log 10 unit 4.9, CI 1.99 to 11.8) and women (HR 11.5, CI 1.47 to 89.7). Leptin predicted ischemic heart disease independently

of age, HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (men: HR 12.9 CI 3.2-53, women: HR 19.9, CI 1.2-327) This finding of increased risk related to high leptin levels was also statistically significant when carotid-femoral PWV and IMT were both added to the equations in

men (hazard ratio 9.2 CI 2.1-41). Conclusions: Our data support the use of serum leptin in type 2 diabetes to add independent prognostic information in terms of ischemic heart disease when compared with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In the men of the cohort this prognostic information was in addition also to data on IMT and PWV, two non-invasive measurements of the extent of vascular disease. The power to detect a similar relationship in women was less strong due to lower incidence of BVD-523 cardiovascular disease. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials. gov:”
“Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) has important public health implications for transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Clinical and epidemiologic profiles of 102 PKDL patients showed that median age of males and females at the time of diagnosis was significantly different (P = 0.013). A significant association was observed between family history of VL and sex of PKDL patients (chi(2) = 5.72, P < 0.01). Nearly 33% of the patients showed development of PKDL within one year of VL treatment.

ATRA and SB inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle G, arres

ATRA and SB inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle G, arrest. The inhibition effect was more pronounced with SB than with ATRA (p = 0.000). There were interactions between ATRA

and SB (p = 0.000). Consistent with the inhibition effect and G, arrest, ATRA and SB, alone or in combination, induced the expression of 61 phase markers cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6, p21, and p27; inhibited the expression of S-G2 phase proteins CDK2; and decreased Rb phosphorylation. Cyclin D1 expression was increased in the SB- and ATRA + SB-treated groups, but inhibited in the ATRA-treated group. Cyclin B I and cyclin E expression was slightly decreased in the SB- and ATRA + SB-treated groups, but did 17-AAG chemical structure not change in the ATRA-treated group. These results indicate that the growth inhibition and G, arrest of oral squamous carcinoma cells

in response to ATRA and/or SB correlates with the induction of G, phase cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK6, p21, and p27 and the inhibition of S-G2 phase cell cycle regulatory protein CDK2.”
“In this article, we have experimentally investigated the nanometer thick cubic HfO2 stabilized with 6 mol % Y2O3 (YSH) films deposited by pulsed laser deposition method in detail. Except the excellent dielectric properties, including a significant increase in dielectric constant as high as 27.2, a negative flatband voltage of -0.46 V, and a very small loop hysteresis, the YSH film has also shown an obvious response to magnetic field. The saturation magnetization of about check details 1.3 A m(2) kg(-1) and 5.8 A m(2) kg(-1) is presented from the YSH films at 300 K with parallel and perpendicular magnetic field, respectively, which is 20% and

9% larger than that of pure HfO2 film at corresponding magnetic field. It is an indicative approach to control the dielectric properties of hafnium-based Selleckchem GNS-1480 oxide films with electric and/or magnetic operation.”
“The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or Tc-99m-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction.

Genes affected were associated with cell wall growth and modifica

Genes affected were associated with cell wall growth and modification, tetrapyrrole synthesis, hormone response, starch metabolism and nitrogen metabolism The implications of these results for the development of waterlogging-tolerant cotton are discussed.”
“Fracture risk assessments on bone mineral density reports guide family physicians’ treatment decisions but are subject to inaccuracy. Qualitative analysis of interviews with 22 family physicians JQEZ5 in vitro illustrates their pervasive questioning

of reported assessment accuracy and independent assumption of responsibility for assessment. Assumption of responsibility is common despite duplicating specialists’ work.\n\nFracture risk is the basis for recommendations of treatment for osteoporosis, but assessments on bone mineral density (BMD) reports are subject to known inaccuracies. This creates a complex situation for referring physicians, who must rely on assessments to inform treatment decisions. This

study was designed to broadly understand physicians’ current experiences with and preferences for BMD reporting; the present analysis focuses on their interpretation and use of the fracture risk assessments on reports, specifically\n\nA qualitative, thematic analysis of one-on-one interviews with 22 family physicians in Ontario, Canada was performed.\n\nThe first major theme identified in interview data reflects questioning by family physicians of reported fracture risk assessments’ accuracy. Several check details major subthemes related to this included questioning of: 1) accuracy in raw bone mineral density measures (e.g., g/cm(2)); 2) accurate inclusion of modifying risk factors; and 3) the fracture risk assessment methodology employed. A second major theme identified was family physicians’ independent

assumption of responsibility for risk assessment and its interpretation. Many participants reported that they computed risk assessments in their practice to ensure accuracy, even when provided with assessments on reports.\n\nResults indicate family physicians question accuracy of risk assessments on BMD reports and often assume responsibility both for revising and relating assessments Buparlisib to treatment recommendations. This assumption of responsibility is common despite the fact that it may duplicate the efforts of reading physicians. Better capture of risk information on BMD referrals, quality control standards for images and standardization of risk reporting may help attenuate some inefficiency.”
“Aims: Ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection for stage III melanoma is often complicated by wound healing disturbances. A retrospective study was performed to investigate the wound healing disturbances after therapeutic ili-inguinal lymphj node dissection.

Here we report the crystal structure of PduU, a protein from the

Here we report the crystal structure of PduU, a protein from the Pdu microcompartment, representing the first structure of a shell protein from a noncarboxysome microcompartment. Though PduU is a hexamer like other characterized shell proteins, it has undergone a circular permutation leading

to dramatic differences in the hexamer pore. In view of the hypothesis that microcompartment metabolites diffuse across the outer shell through these pores, the unique structure of PduU suggests the possibility of a special functional role.”
“This work describes the rational design, synthesis, and study of a ligand that selectively complexes CUG repeats in RNA (and CTG repeats in DNA) with high nanomolar

affinity. This Etomoxir molecular weight sequence is considered a causative agent of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) because of its ability to sequester muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. Ligand 1 was synthesized in two steps from commercially available compounds, and its binding to CTG and CUG repeats in oligonucleotides studied. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies of 1 with various sequences showed a preference toward the T-T mismatch (Kd of 390 +/- 80 nM) with a 13-, 169-, and 85-fold reduction in affinity toward single C-C, A-A, and G-G mismatches, respectively. Binding and Job analysis of 1 to multiple CTG step sequences revealed high affinity binding to every other T-T mismatch with negative cooperativity for proximal T-T mismatches. The affinity of 1 for a (CUG) 4 step provided a Kd of 430 nM with a binding stoichiometry of 1:1. AZD6738 purchase The preference

for the U-U in RNA was maintained with a 6-, >143-, and >143-fold reduction in affinity toward single C-C, A-A, and G-G mismatches, respectively. Ligand 1 destabilized the complexes formed between MBNL1N and (CUG)(4) and (CUG)(12) with IC(50) values of 52 +/- 20 Selleck Bucladesine mu M and 46 +/- 7 mu M, respectively, and K(i) values of 6 +/- 2 mu M and 7 +/- 1 mu M, respectively. These values were only minimally altered by the addition of competitor tRNA. Ligand 1 does not destabilize the unrelated RNA-protein complexes the U1A-SL2 RNA complex and the Sex lethal-tra RNA complex. Thus, ligand 1 selectively destabilizes the MBNL1N-poly(CUG) complex.”
“Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum sensing system that temporally controls a large number of virulence factors including exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. Staphylocoagulase is one major virulence factor, which promotes clotting of human plasma. Like the major cell surface protein A, the expression of staphylocoagulase is strongly repressed by the quorum sensing system at the post-exponential growth phase. Here we used a combination of approaches in vivo and in vitro to analyze the mechanism used by RNAIII to regulate the expression of staphylocoagulase.

Uniform dispersion of the small molecule in the polymer and inhib

Uniform dispersion of the small molecule in the polymer and inhibition of aggregation are requirements for the robust functioning of the devices. Alternate approaches such as incorporating the functional molecule as part of the polymer chain have been examined, although such methods limit the flexibility in materials choice. While perylene or perylene tetracarboxy diimide (PTCDI) or perylene imide (PI) learn more phase separate

into discrete crystals in polymer films, we find that functionalizing the perylene imide with a polymer or oligomer segment that is compatible with the host polymer matrix results in highly uniform dispersion of the small molecule, with the inherent photophysical properties of the perylene segment unaffected. We demonstrate this approach with oligostyrene-PTCDI-oligostyrene dispersed in polystyrene, PDMS-PI and PDMS-PTCDI-PDMS selleckchem in PDMS in solution cast films and in two-component gels from organic solvents. Fluorescent gels of polystyrene and PDMS (without crosslinks or functionalization) were obtained via this route. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“This paper describes the dental health status of Italian 4-year-olds in 2004/2005 and analyzes the association between caries in preschool children and some background characteristics in children

and parents. Caries was recorded according to WHO criteria. 5,538 subjects were examined. Information on the children’s selleck kinase inhibitor and their parents’ social, behavioral, ethnic and demographic status was obtained through a series of closed questions. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate the association between caries and background characteristics. The probability of being an extra zero for the dmfs index was estimated via the zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB). 78.4%

(95% CI = 77.2-79.6) of the children were caries-free. The national mean dmfs index was 1.36 (95% CI = 1.15-1.57), ranging from 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03-1.42) in the Italian North-East to 1.73 (95% CI = 0.83-2.63) in the South section. Significant bivariate associations between caries experience and risk factors were observed for parents’ nationality (not Italian vs. Italian: p < 0.001), parents’ educational levels (low vs. high: p < 0.001), preterm birth (yes vs. no: p = 0.011), prolonged breastfeeding (<= 13 months vs. >13 months: p = 0.038) and early tooth eruption (<6 months as reference: p = 0.004). Multivariable analysis (ZINB) showed that children with a low caries risk level had a higher probability of being an extra zero; in particular, children from fathers with a high educational level showed a probability of being an extra zero of 0.22. The results suggest a need to plan preventive programs to reduce oral health disparities among Italian preschool children, based on educational intervention with parents and children concerning oral health and caries prevention. Copyright (C) 2009 S.

The experiment

The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with six repetitions and five treatments, consisting of three soil covers in an organic no-tillage system, and an organic and a conventional system, both without soil cover. The treatments with soil cover used a grass species represented by the black oat, a leguminous species represented by the white lupine, and intercropping between both species. Corn was sown with spacing of 1.0 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants, using the commercial hybrid AG 1051. Infestation in corn was evaluated at stages V5 and V10, and weed density was

evaluated at stage V5. The use of black oat straw alone or intercropped with white lupine, in the organic no-tillage corn cropping system, reduced the percentage of weed infestation and absolute weed density. Management-intensive

systems and systems without soil cover showed higher relative densities for species Oxalis spp., Galinsoga quadriradiata and Stachys arvensis. The species Cyperus rotundus {Selleck Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleck Anticancer Compound Library|Selleck Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleck Anticancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anticancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anti-cancer Compound Library|Selleckchem Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library|buy Anti-cancer Compound Library|Anti-cancer Compound Library ic50|Anti-cancer Compound Library price|Anti-cancer Compound Library cost|Anti-cancer Compound Library solubility dmso|Anti-cancer Compound Library purchase|Anti-cancer Compound Library manufacturer|Anti-cancer Compound Library research buy|Anti-cancer Compound Library order|Anti-cancer Compound Library mouse|Anti-cancer Compound Library chemical structure|Anti-cancer Compound Library mw|Anti-cancer Compound Library molecular weight|Anti-cancer Compound Library datasheet|Anti-cancer Compound Library supplier|Anti-cancer Compound Library in vitro|Anti-cancer Compound Library cell line|Anti-cancer Compound Library concentration|Anti-cancer Compound Library nmr|Anti-cancer Compound Library in vivo|Anti-cancer Compound Library clinical trial|Anti-cancer Compound Library cell assay|Anti-cancer Compound Library screening|Anti-cancer Compound Library high throughput|buy Anticancer Compound Library|Anticancer Compound Library ic50|Anticancer Compound Library price|Anticancer Compound Library cost|Anticancer Compound Library solubility dmso|Anticancer Compound Library purchase|Anticancer Compound Library manufacturer|Anticancer Compound Library research buy|Anticancer Compound Library order|Anticancer Compound Library chemical structure|Anticancer Compound Library datasheet|Anticancer Compound Library supplier|Anticancer Compound Library in vitro|Anticancer Compound Library cell line|Anticancer Compound Library concentration|Anticancer Compound Library clinical trial|Anticancer Compound Library cell assay|Anticancer Compound Library screening|Anticancer Compound Library high throughput|Anti-cancer Compound high throughput screening| showed the highest relative density on organic no-tillage corn cropping systems. Black oat straw in the organic no-tillage cropping system limited the productive potential of corn.”
“The slow component of pulmonary O-2 uptake ((V) over dotO(2)) during constant work rate (CWR) high-intensity exercise has been attributed to the progressive recruitment of (type II) muscle fibers. STI571 We tested the following hypotheses: 1) the (V) over dotO(2) slow component gain would be greater in a 3-min all-out cycle test than in a work-matched CWR test, and 2) the all-out test would be associated with a progressive decline, and the CWR test with a progressive increase,

in muscle activation, as estimated from the electromyogram (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle. Eight men (aged 21-39 yr) completed a ramp incremental test, a 3-min all-out test, and a work-and time-matched CWR test to exhaustion. The maximum (V) over dotO(2) attained in an initial ramp incremental test (3.97 +/- 0.83 l/min) was reached in both experimental tests (3.99 +/- 0.84 and 4.03 +/- 0.76 l/min for all-out and CWR, respectively). The (V) over dotO(2) slow component was greater (P < 0.05) in the all-out test (1.21 +/- 0.31 l/min, 4.2 +/- 2.2 ml . min(-1) . W-1) than in the CWR test (0.59 +/- 0.22 l/min, 1.70 +/- 0.5 ml . min(-1) . W-1). The integrated EMG declined by 26% (P < 0.001) during the all-out test and increased by 60% (P < 0.05) during the CWR test from the first 30 s to the last 30 s of exercise. The considerable reduction in muscle efficiency in the all-out test in the face of a progressively falling integrated EMG indicates that progressive fiber recruitment is not requisite for development of the (V) over dotO(2) slow component during voluntary exercise in humans.