Pharmacotherapy and trophin infusion preserved gray matter, white matter, and oligodendrocytes. Trophin infusion also significantly increased cyst and lesional tissue volume as well as inflammatory infiltrate, and functional recovery was reduced Animals transplanted with wild-type NPCs showed greatest functional recovery; animals transplanted with shiverer NPCs performed the worst. Wild-type NPCs remyelinated host axons. Shiverer NPCs ensheathed axons but did not produce MBP. These results suggest that selleck chemical remyelination by NPCs is an important contribution to functional recovery following SCI. Shiverer NPCs may prevent remyelination by endogenous cells capable
of myelin formation. These findings suggest that remyelination is an important therapeutic target following SCI.”
“We have developed a highly efficient synthetic route to beta-ketosuifones via AgNO3 catalyzed oxysulfonylation of alkenes using thiophenols in the presence of air (O-2) and K2S2O8 as eco-friendly oxidants. Thiophenols have been used as sulfonylation precursors for the first time in a dioxygen
activation based radical process. Moreover, the protocol also GSK1838705A chemical structure offers a new and convenient method for the synthesis of beta-hydroxysulfides at room temperature without the use of any initiator.”
“Structures of the catalytic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain of the bifunctional N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase (NAGS/K) from Xylella fastidiosa bound to N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) with and without an N-terminal His tag have been solved and refined at 1.7 and 1.4 angstrom resolution, respectively. The NAT domain with an N-terminal His tag crystallized in space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 51.72, c = 242.31 angstrom. Two subunits form a molecular dimer in the asymmetric unit, which contains approximate to 41% solvent. The NAT domain without Selleck Combretastatin A4 an N-terminal His tag crystallized in space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.48, b = 122.34, c = 75.88 angstrom, = 107.6 degrees.
Eight subunits, which form four molecular dimers, were identified in the asymmetric unit, which contains approximate to 38% solvent. The structures with and without the N-terminal His tag provide an opportunity to evaluate how the His tag affects structure and function. Furthermore, multiple subunits in different packing environments allow an assessment of the plasticity of the NAG binding site, which might be relevant to substrate binding and product release. The dimeric structure of the X. fastidiosaN-acetytransferase (xfNAT) domain is very similar to that of human N-acetyltransferase (hNAT), reinforcing the notion that mammalian NAGS is evolutionally derived from bifunctional bacterial NAGS/K.”
“PURPOSE. To determine whether retrobulbar blood flow (RBF) velocities are predictive of conversion to glaucoma.\n\nMETHODS. A total of 262 glaucoma suspects were prospectively selected.
There were several significant findings : 1) related subsidence [T-score (p=0.039) and anterior osteophyte (p=0.009)], 2) accompanying posterior osteophyte and outcome (p=0.05).\n\nConclusion : Cage subsidence and osteophyte formation were Y-27632 in vitro radiologically observed in most cases. Low T-scores may have led to subsidence and kyphosis during bone fusion although severe neurologic aggravation was not found, and therefore cylindrical cages should be used in selected cases.”
“Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine age at menopause and the prevalence of menopausal symptoms among women in a community in Babol,
Iran, and then identify the factors associated with these symptoms and age.\n\nMethods: A retrospective, descriptive, epidemiological study was conducted on the characteristics of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. A total of 1,397 individuals aged 45 to 63 years were selected using a standard cluster sampling technique. The questionnaire used included menopausal symptoms, menopause status, causes of menopause, use of hormones, reproductive history, and sociodemographic factors. A standard questionnaire
named Symptom ScoreCard was used to assess the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms. The data were analyzed by chi(2) analysis, t test, analysis of variance, and adjusted odds buy AZD8055 ratios with their 95% CIs.\n\nResults: Recalled mean +/- SD age at natural menopause was 47.7 +/- 4.9 years. No significant difference by age at menopause was observed in sociodemographic data, smoking status, reproductive history, and oral contraceptive use. The most prevalent symptoms were irritability (72.1%), joint pain
(70.6%), and depression (59.7%) during the previous 2 weeks. An increase in the percentage of occurrence and severity of some symptoms with transition to menopause was observed. The total score for menopausal symptoms was 13.0 +/- 7.7. High economic situation (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.58) was a factor significantly associated with a total menopausal score of higher than 15.\n\nConclusions: This study shows BIBF 1120 concentration a high prevalence of menopausal symptoms and an earlier mean age at menopause (47.7 y) for women in a community in Babol, Iran. It would be beneficial to establish a menopausal clinic in primary healthcare centers for the clinical staff to monitor postmenopausal women.”
“Hypertension is a common chronic medical condition affecting over 65 million Americans. Uncontrolled hypertension can progress to a hypertensive crisis defined as a systolic blood pressure >180 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure >120 mm Hg. Hypertensive crisis can be further classified as a hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency depending on end-organ involvement including cardiac, renal, and neurologic injury. The prompt recognition of a hypertensive emergency with the appropriate diagnostic tests and triage will lead to the adequate reduction of blood pressure, ameliorating the incidence of fatal outcomes.
We therefore developed an efficient bacterial expression system to produce a panel of pi-TRTX-Pc1a mutants for probing structure-activity relationships as well as isotopically labeled toxin for determination of CCI-779 manufacturer its solution structure and dynamics. We demonstrate that the toxin pharmacophore resides in a beta-hairpin loop that was revealed to be mobile over a wide range of time scales using molecular dynamics simulations in combination with NMR spin relaxation and relaxation dispersion measurements. The toxin-receptor interaction was modeled by in silico docking of the toxin structure onto a homology model of rat ASIC1a in a restraints-driven approach that was designed to take account of the
dynamics of the toxin pharmacophore and the consequent remodeling of side-chain conformations upon receptor binding. The resulting model reveals new insights
into the mechanism of action of pi-TRTX-Pc1a and provides an experimentally validated template for the rational design of therapeutically useful pi-TRTX-Pc1a mimetics.”
“Objectives To assess dearly revascularization offers any survival benefit in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who are >= 75 years of age Background CS after AMI continues to pose formidable therapeutic challenges in elderly patients Methods We conducted survival analyses of 310 NVP-AUY922 consecutive subjects (including 80 patients >= 75 years of age) who developed cardiogenic shock after AMI at two study centers – Rush University Medical Center and the John H Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County (both in Chicago Illinois) The data were collected over a 6 year period Where appropriate we used HSP990 in vivo Kaplan Meier survival plots multivariate
Cox proportional hazards modeling stepwise multivariate Poisson regression analyses and unconditional logistic regression analysis Results Early revascularization was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit both in patients < 75 years of age (relative hazard 0 40 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 28-0 59 p < 0 001) as well as in patients >= 75 years of age (relative hazard 0 56, 95% CI 0 32-0 99, p = 0 049) This benefit remained significant even after adjusting for the simultaneous Sects of several putative confounders In patients >= 75 years of age, this survival benefit was evident very early and was sustained all through the period of follow up of the cohort Conclusions These retrospective data suggest a significant survival benefit of early revascularization in elderly patients >= 75 years of age developing CS after AMI, albeit less as compared to those aged < 75 years”
“Background There are few methods for the correction of the reduction of subcutaneous volumes. Polylactic acid is a new material with which we can achieve interesting results.
cocos. Extracted from the sclerotium
of P. cocos, the (1-3)-beta-D-glucan was oxidized by using TEMPO/NaBr/NaCIO oxidation system and the water-soluble oxidized product was prepared. The structural and physiological properties of the derivative were investigated. The composition of the oxidized product was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the molecular weight parameters were obtained by LLS analysis. The oxidation caused the enhancement of in vitro bile acid binding capacity of the polysaccharides which would be explained by the improved water solubility Selleck CBL0137 and structural changes caused by oxidation. In addition, in vitro hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the derivative was observed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. GSK1210151A clinical trial All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a role in the regulation of basolateral Cl channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL). The patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that application of IGF-1 or insulin inhibited the basolateral 10-pS Cl channels. However, the concentration of insulin required for the inhibition of the Cl channels by 50% (K-1/2)
was ten times higher than those of IGF-1. The inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels was blocked by suppressing protein tyrosine kinase or by blocking phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In contrast, BVD-523 mw inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels in the TAL Western blot analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 significantly increased the phosphorylation of phospholipid-dependent kinase (PDK) at serine residue 241 (Ser(241)) and AKT at Ser(473) in the isolated medullary TAL Moreover, inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the phosphorylation of PDK and AKT. The notion that the effect of IGF-1
on the 10-pS Cl channels was induced by stimulation of PDK-AKT-mTOR pathway was further suggested by the finding that rapamycin completely abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels in the TAL We conclude that IGF-1 inhibits the basolateral Cl channels by activating PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. The inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels may play a role in ameliorating the ischemia-induced renal injury through IGF-1 administration. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“An increasing number of analgesic peptides have been found in the tail toxicyst, but there has been little research into their analgesic domains. Where are the analgesic domains in a conservative beta alpha beta beta topology conformation of the analgesic peptides? We have carried out research to address this question.
“Objective: The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids click here on an intestinal
ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model was shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of parenteral omega-3 fatty acids, a safe and inexpensive product, on a rat model of ovarian I/R. Study design: A group of 39 rats was divided into six groups. Group 1 (Sham Group; n = 6) underwent two laparotomies with a 3-h interval and their ovaries were removed 3 h later. Group 2 (torsion detorsion Group; n = 7) had their ovaries torsioned clockwise and fixed at 7200; 3 h later a detorsion operation was done and after another 3 h, their ovaries were removed. Group 3 (n = 7) and Group 4 (n = 7) received the same treatment as Group 2; however, half an hour prior to detorsion, these rats received Omegaven at 1 mL/kg and 5 mL/kg, respectively. Group 5 (n = 6) and Group 6 (n = 6) received the same treatment as Group 1; however, half an hour prior to the second laparotomy, these rats received Omegaven at 1 mL/kg and 5 mL/kg, respectively. One ovary from each rat was evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the other ovary was homogenized and evaluated for total oxidant status (TOS), total
antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). Results: While we failed to show any significant relationship among Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil groups in oxidative parameters, there was a significant worsening in the torsion detorsion group in histological Nirogacestat mouse evaluation. High Omegaven doses, but not low doses, improved tissue injury scores of torsioned and detorsioned ovaries to the levels observed in the control group. Conclusion: Omegaven improves the detrimental effects of ovarian I/R when used in sufficient doses. Its effects and dose adjustment on women with ovarian torsion
must be investigated by further studies. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Turbinectomy, although a common procedure, is often accused of having a negative impact in all nasal functions. This study is the first in vivo study that evaluates objectively the effect of partial turbinectomy on nasal air-conditioning capacity. Methods: In total, 57 patients with prior partial inferior turbinectomy and 28 healthy controls were examined. Intranasal temperature and humidity values were measured at the level of the head of inferior and middle turbinate. Nasal patency was evaluated by means of acoustic rhinometry. The clinical assessment was completed with nasal endoscopy and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation questionnaire for subjective evaluation of nasal patency.
Acquisition of microbial communities by vertical or horizontal transmission and possible genetic exchanges through lateral transfer could strongly impact on the host insect or plant fitness by conferring adaptations to new habitats. Recent developments in sequencing
technologies and molecular tools have dramatically enhanced opportunities to characterize the microbial diversity associated with plants and insects and have unveiled some of the mechanisms by which symbionts modulate plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on the diversity and ecological consequences of bacterial communities associated with plants and herbivorous insects. We also highlight buy Staurosporine the known mechanisms by which these microbes interfere with plant-insect interactions. Revealing such mechanisms in model systems under controlled environments but also in more natural ecological settings will help us to Sapitinib understand the evolution of complex multitrophic interactions in which plants, herbivorous insects, and micro-organisms are inserted.”
“The increased emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is perceived as a critical public health threat, creating an urgent need for the development of novel classes of antimicrobials. Cell-penetrating peptides that share common features with antimicrobial peptides have been found to have antimicrobial activity and are currently being considered as potential alternatives
AZD8931 to antibiotics. Transportan 10 is a chimeric cell-penetrating peptide that has been reported to transport biologically relevant cargoes into mammalian cells and cause damage to microbial membranes. In this study, we designed a series of TP10 analogues and studied their structure-activity relationships. We first evaluated the antimicrobial activities of these compounds against multidrug-resistant bacteria, which are responsible for most nosocomial infections. Our results showed that several of these compounds
had potent antimicrobial and biofilm-inhibiting activities. We also measured the toxicity of these compounds, finding that Lys substitution could increase the antimicrobial activity but significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity. Pro introduction could reduce the cytotoxicity but disrupted the helical structure, resulting in a loss of activity. In the mechanistic studies, TP10 killed bacteria by membrane-active and DNA-binding activities. In conclusion, TP10 and its analogues could be developed into promising antibiotic candidates for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Copyright (c) 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Objective: We evaluated quantitative EEG (QEEG) measures as predictive biomarkers for the development of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD). Preliminary work shows that QEEG measures correlate with current PD cognitive state.
“Background: Phthalates can disrupt endocrine function and induce reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animals. Few studies have evaluated exposure to phthalates in pregnant women, despite the potential sensitivity of the developing fetus to adverse effects of phthalates.\n\nMethods:
We measured urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites in 19 pregnant women, recruited in Jerusalem, Israel in 2006, and collected questionnaire data on demographic factors and consumer habits from these women. We compared geometric mean concentrations in subgroups and used the Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples to determine significant differences between groups.\n\nResults: Nine metabolites were detected in at least 95% of the samples: mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) click here phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(n-butyl) phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl AZD4547 Angiogenesis inhibitor phthalate (MEP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and monoisobutyl phthalate. Phthalate metabolite concentrations in these pregnant women were remarkably similar to those in the
general United States female population. MBzP geometric mean concentrations were higher in women living in buildings existing 40 years or more (P=0.04). In women who used four or more personal care products (perfume, deodorant lipstick, nail polish, or hand/face cream) in the 48 h prior to providing the urine sample, geometric mean MEP concentrations
were more than 4 times higher than concentrations in women using only two or three of the aforementioned products (P=0.07).\n\nConclusions: buy Vactosertib Pregnant women in Jerusalem are exposed to a wide range of phthalates. Building materials used in old constructions may be a source of exposure to benzylbutyl phthalate, the parent compound of MBzP. Personal care products may be sources of exposure to diethyl phthalate, the parent compound of MER (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To evaluate high-resolution multi-pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (MPH-SPECT) for the detection of bony alterations in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA), early osteoarthritis (EOA) of the fingers and healthy controls.\n\nThe clinically dominant hands of 27 patients (13 ERA, nine EOA, five healthy controls) were examined by MPH-SPECT and bone scintigraphy. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in the ERA patients. Number of affected joints, localisation, pattern of tracer distribution and joint involvement were scored. Quantitative analysis was achieved by measurement of the region of interest (ROI) in all patients. The MPH-SPECT and MR images were fused in the ERA group.\n\nBone scintigraphy detected fewer joints (26 joints,13/22 patients) with increased tracer uptake than did MPH-SPECT (80 joints, 21/22 patients). Bone scintigraphy did not show recognisable uptake patterns in any group of patients.
During active sleep at 3 months, cortical arousal frequency was decreased, and total sleep time was increased by swaddling in infants who were naive to swaddling. Heart rate variability when swaddled was also highest in the naive group.\n\nConclusions The effects of infant swaddling on sleep 3-Methyladenine research buy time, arousability, and autonomic control are influenced by previous swaddling experience. Infants in the naive to swaddling group exhibited decreased spontaneous cortical arousal, similar to responses observed in future victims of sudden infant death syndrome. Infants in unfamiliar sleeping conditions may therefore be more susceptible to cardiorespiratory
challenges that fail to stimulate arousal and may lead to sudden infant death syndrome. (J Pediatr 2010; 157: 85-91).”
“A total of 35
isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. isolates obtained from various insects of Novosibirsk oblast were investigated. The fungal morphotypes were found to include cultures of high, medium, and low virulence. Low correlation (r < 0.48) was observed between virulence and the morphophysiological characteristics of the isolates (lipase and protease activity, biomass, radial growth rate, conidia productivity, and relief). S3I-201 solubility dmso Isolates exhibiting high virulence to insects of a certain order proved to be virulent to the insects of other orders. A high correlation (r > 0. 74) was revealed between the virulence of the isolates to the potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and the locusts Calliptamus barbarus Costa and Locusta migratoria L. Isolates obtained from insects of the same species in the same site may differ significantly in virulence.”
“Purpose/Objectives: To analyze predictors of adjustment and growth in women who had experienced recurrent ovarian cancer using components
of the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation as a conceptual framework.\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional.\n\nSetting: Entinostat solubility dmso Participants were recruited from national cancer advocacy groups.\n\nSample: 60 married or partnered women with recurrent ovarian cancer.\n\nMethods: Participants completed an online or paper survey.\n\nMain Research Variables: Independent variables included demographic and illness variables and meaning of illness. Outcome variables were psychological adjustment and post-traumatic growth.\n\nFindings: A model of five predictor variables (younger age, fewer years in the relationship, poorer performance status, greater symptom distress, and more negative meaning) accounted for 64% of the variance in adjustment but did not predict post-traumatic growth.\n\nConclusions: This’ study supports the use of a model of adjustment: that includes demographic, illness, and appraisal variables for women with recurrent ovarian cancer. Symptom distress and poorer performance status were the most significant predictors of adjustment.
T. suecica, I. galbana, and Selleck GW4869 N. oculata showed high dry cell weights of 0.58, 0.57, and 0.57 g/L, respectively. The culture period of T. suecica to reach the stationary phase was 9 days. On the other hand, N. oculata showed the longest culture period of 28 days to reach the stationary phase. T. suecica absorbed nitrate at the initial stages of cell growth, decreasing the nitrate concentration to 0.5 mg/L on day-7 of the culture. The highest oil contents were observed in P. tricornutum with a 25.31% dry cell weight and I. galbana with a 23.15% dry cell weight on day-9 after the stationary phase.
I. galbana showed 417.33 mg of palmitic acid per g oil and T. suecica showed 235.61 mg of oleic acid per g oil. Stearic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid did not exceed 30.02 mg/g oil in any of the microalgae. Selleck Caspase inhibitor T. suecica showed the shortest culture period of 9 days to reach the stationary phase. Therefore, the highest biomass production of 0.58 g/L was obtained and I. galbana showed high biomass production of 0.57 g/ L and oil content of 23.15% of dry cell weight. Therefore, T. suecica and I. galbana can be selected as a potential candidate for the production of biodiesel.”
“Epigenetic regulation in eukaryotic and mammalian systems is a complex and emerging
field of study. While histone modifications create an open chromatin conformation allowing for gene transcription, CpG methylation adds a further dimension to the expression of specific genes in developmental pathways and carcinogenesis. In this review, we will highlight DNA methylation as one of the distinct mechanisms for gene silencing and try to provide insight into the role of epigenetics in cancer progenitor BX-795 cell formation and carcinogenesis.
We will also introduce the concept of a dynamic methylation-demethylation system and the potential for the existence of a demethylating enzyme in this process. Finally, we will explain how re-expression of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes could be exploited to develop effective drug therapies. In particular, we will consider how a combination therapy that includes epigenetic drugs could possibly kill cancer progenitor cells and reduce the chance of relapse following chemotherapy.”
“Background. The genesis of chronic pain in urology has so far been insufficiently investigated. No investigations have focused on the occurrence of preoperative pain. We developed an epidemiological questionnaire to analyze preoperative pain.\n\nMethods. In this questionnaire, preoperative pain in all patients scheduled for urologic surgery ( n=165) was analyzed. Acute and chronic pain was analyzed as main or adjoint pain, with the registration of severity, chronification states, and duration. We registered depression and anxiety, well-being, and somatic and psychological efficiency.\n\nResults. Eighty percent of the patients reported pain within the previous 12 months.
Initial temperature increase was detected earlier with MSP (13.4+/-7.5 vs. 30.5+/-15.4 s; P smaller than 0.001); led to shorter time to 1.0 degrees C rise (18.5+/-10.1 vs. 32.1+/-12.0 s; P smaller than 0.001); and higher change in peak temperature (1.6+/-2.0 vs. 0.60+/-0.53 degrees C;
P smaller than 0.001). Decay time was similar between the probes (146.1+/-35.3 vs. 150.4+/-48.4 s; P = 0.89). The incidence of oesophageal ulceration was similar between the Groups A and B (5 and 4, respectively). Multi-sensor self-expandable probe provided greater sensitivity (100 vs. 60%) and similar specificity (60%) for detection of oesophageal ulceration. Five swine underwent oesophageal mapping before and after MSP placement without
alteration in size or position. Conclusion Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil Multi-sensor probes provide a superior thermodynamic profile. Its clinical value in reducing oesophageal Nirogacestat cost injury requires further evaluation.”
“MHC class II molecules are composed of one alpha-chain and one beta-chain whose membrane distal interface forms the peptide binding groove. Most of the existing knowledge on MHC class II molecules comes from the cis-encoded variants where the alpha- and beta-chain are encoded on the same chromosome. However, trans-encoded class II MHC molecules, where the alpha- and beta-chain are encoded on opposite chromosomes, can also be expressed. We have studied the trans-encoded class II HLA molecule DQ2.3 (DQA1*03:01/DQB1*02:01) that has received particular attention as it may explain the increased risk of certain individuals to type 1 diabetes. We report the x-ray crystal structure of Dihydrotestosterone order this HLA molecule complexed with a gluten epitope
at 3.05 angstrom resolution. The gluten epitope, which is the only known HLA-DQ2.3-restricted epitope, is preferentially recognized in the context of the DQ2.3 molecule by T-cell clones of a DQ8/DQ2.5 heterozygous celiac disease patient. This preferential recognition can be explained by improved HLA binding as the epitope combines the peptide-binding motif of DQ2.5 (negative charge at P4) and DQ8 (negative charge at P1). The analysis of the structure of DQ2.3 together with all other available DQ crystal structures and sequences led us to categorize DQA1 and DQB1 genes into two groups where any alpha-chain and beta-chain belonging to the same group are expected to form a stable heterodimer.”
“The effects of Se(IV) on the structure and function of recombinant human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) purified from the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli were studied. The coding region of human AS3MT complementary DNA was amplified from total RNA extracted from HepG2 cell by reverse transcription PCR. Soluble and active human AS3MT was expressed in the E. coli with a Trx fusion tag under a lower induction temperature of 25 degrees C.