The BR parameter, eta(BR), was found to be 0 90, indicating a fir

The BR parameter, eta(BR), was found to be 0.90, indicating a first-order magnetic transition at T-N = 59.7 K. The temperature variation of the isomer shift is explained by the second-order Doppler shift delta(SOD). Using the

Debye model for the lattice vibrational spectrum for calculating delta(SOD), the characteristic Mossbauer temperature Theta(M) was found to be 400 K, which is unusually low for a ferric compound. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In this paper, an adaptive finite element method is developed for stationary conduction convection problems. Using a mixed finite element formulation, residual type a posteriori error estimates are derived by means of the general framework of R. Verfurth. The effectiveness Navitoclax ic50 of the adaptive method is further demonstrated through two numerical examples. The first example is problem with known solution and the second example is a physical model of square cavity stationary flow. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Novel organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesised through the reaction of epoxidised castor oil (ECO) with gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The amounts of GPTMS employed were Sufficient to react with 25, 50 or 75% of the epoxy groups present in the ECO, whilst the mass proportions of ECO BTK inhibitor mouse to TEOS varied from 90:

10 to 70:30. Films were pre-cured at room temperature under an inert atmosphere, and subsequently submitted to thermal curing. Macro and microscopic properties of the films, including adhesion, hardness, swelling in toluene, microstructure (scanning electron microscopy) and thermal properties were determined as a function of the proportion of organic

to inorganic precursor. Morphologic Studies showed that the hybrid films were microscopically homogeneous when lower proportions of inorganic precursors were employed. Hardness and tensile strength increased. and swelling in toluene decreased, with the increase in the concentration of inorganic precursors. Good adhesion of the films to an aluminium Surface was observed throughout the hybrid series. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study investigated possible sex-related and intra-menstrual PI3K inhibitor differences in local vascular and skin temperature responses when conductive cooling was applied to the soles of the feet. Twelve females and twelve males exposed the soles of their feet to a cooling plate (which cooled from 35 to 15 A degrees C) on two occasions 12-15 days apart. For females, sessions took place during their inactive and active contraceptive pill phases. Tip of Great toe temperature and Great toe skin blood flow were recorded throughout. Females’ feet cooled to a greater extent than males’ (P = 0.001). Sensitivity of toe skin blood flow to changes in skin temperature (1 or 2 A degrees C) was not different between males and females. Dimensions of males’ feet were larger than females’ (P smaller than 0.

We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following

We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following leuprolide acetate injections

in a 65-year-old man that shares clinical and histopathological features of papuloerythroderma of Ofuji. Leuprolide-induced papuloerythroderma, as well as a limited number of other disseminated SU5402 chemical structure cutaneous eruptions caused by this drug, is extremely rare, with only one case previously reported. Our case calls attention to this uncommon side effect in a commonly used hormonal therapy.”
“This work aimed to develop an ab initio procedure for accurately calculating pK(a) values and applied it to study the acidity of asparagine and glycyl-asparagine. DFT methods with B3LYP composed by 6-31+G(d) basis set were applied for calculating the acidic dissociation constant of asparagine and

glycyl-asparagine. The formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the available species and water was analyzed using Tomasi’s method. Results showed this website that in alkaline solutions, the cation, anion and neutral species of asparagine and glycyl-asparagine were solvated with one, two, three and four molecules of water, respectively. There was an excellent similarity between the experimentally attained pK(a) values and the theoretically ones in this work.”
“Background: Coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease invasively assessed by coronary angiography. Evaluation of myocardial perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography may identify the haemodynamic significance of coronary lesions. Objective: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole stress technetium-99m tetrofosmin, single-photon emission computed tomography as a possible alternative

to invasive coronary angiography for detection and follow-up of myocardial ischaemia in patients with Kawasaki disease, and pre-and post-coronary bypass grafting. Patients and methods: Coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed on 21 patients who were classified into three groups -group I (stenosis), group II (giant aneurysms), and group III (small aneurysms). Of the 21 patients, 16 (groups I and II) patients with myocardial perfusion defects, who underwent coronary bypass check details grafting, were followed up with single-photon emission computed tomography. Result: In group I, all patients had significant coronary stenosis and 100% of them had perfusion defects in the anterior and septal walls. In group II, all patients had giant aneurysms and 83% of them had inferior and inferolateral perfusion defects. In group III, all patients had small aneurysms and 100% of them had normal perfusion. Pre-coronary bypass grafting myocardial ischaemic defects disappeared in all patients after surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of singlephoton emission computed tomography were 94, 100, and 95%, respectively.


DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA SYNTHESIS Data published or presented as abstracts at scientific conferences (past 17 years) were systematically searched

and reviewed by the International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society USA HIV Prevention Recommendations Panel. Panel members supplied additional relevant publications, reviewed available data, and formed recommendations by full-panel consensus. RESULTS Testing for HIV is recommended at least once for all adults GSK1120212 molecular weight and adolescents, with repeated testing for those at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of acute HIV infection and promptly pursue diagnostic testing if suspected. At diagnosis of HIV, all individuals should be linked to care for timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Support for adherence and retention in care, individualized risk assessment and counseling, assistance with partner notification, and periodic screening for common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is recommended for HIV-infected individuals as

part of care. In HIV-uninfected patients, those persons at high risk of HIV infection should be prioritized for delivery of interventions such as preexposure prophylaxis and individualized counseling on risk reduction. Daily emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is recommended as preexposure prophylaxis AZD1390 for persons at high risk for HIV based on background incidence or recent diagnosis of incident STIs, use of injection drugs or shared needles, or recent use of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis; ongoing use of preexposure prophylaxis should be guided by regular risk assessment. For persons who inject drugs, harm reduction services should be provided (needle and syringe exchange programs, supervised injection, and available medically assisted therapies, including opioid agonists and antagonists); low-threshold detoxification and

drug cessation programs should be made available. Postexposure prophylaxis is recommended for all persons who have sustained a mucosal or parenteral exposure to HIV from a known infected source and should be initiated as soon as possible. Evofosfamide Others inhibitor CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Data support the integration of biomedical and behavioral approaches for prevention of HIV infection in clinical care settings. A concerted effort to implement combination strategies for HIV prevention is needed to realize the goal of an AIDS-free generation.”
“The mechanism of autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-collagen autoantibodies) induction in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is unknown. The study assessed the hypothesis that activation of autoantibody-producing clones is mediated by idiotype-anti-idiotype (IAI) interactions with lymphocytes on heterologous collagen. It was demonstrated that RF-containing serum of rats immunized with bovine collagen (BCII) in ELISA competes with BCII for binding to anti-BCII antibodies.

All rights reserved “
“Atmospheric N deposition is known to

All rights reserved.”
“Atmospheric N deposition is known to severely impact forest ecosystem functioning by influencing soil biogeochemistry and nutrient balance, and consequently tree growth and overall forest health and biodiversity. Moreover, because climate greatly influences soil processes, climate change and atmospheric N deposition must both be taken into account when analysing the evolution of forest ecosystem status over time. Dynamic biogeochemical models

have been developed to test different climate and atmospheric N deposition scenarios and their potential interactions in the long term. In this study, the ForSAFE model was used to predict the combined effect of atmospheric N deposition and climate change on two temperate forest ecosystems in France dominated by oak and spruce, and more precisely on forest soil biogeochemistry, from today to selleck chemicals 2100. After a calibration step and following a careful statistical

validation process, two atmospheric N deposition scenarios were tested: the current legislation in Europe (CLE) and the maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. They were combined with three climate scenarios: current climate scenario, worst-case climate scenario (A2) and best-case climate scenario (B1). The changes in base saturation and inorganic N concentration in the soil solution were compared across all scenario combinations, with the aim of forecasting Androgen Receptor Antagonist the state of acidification, eutrophication and forest ecosystem recovery up to the year 2100. Simulations highlighted that climate had a

stronger impact on soil base saturation, whereas atmospheric deposition had a comparative effect or a higher effect than climate on N concentration in the soil solution. Although deposition remains the main factor determining the evolution of N concentration in soil solution, increased temperature had a significant effect. Results also highlighted the necessity of considering the joint effect of both climate and atmospheric N deposition on soil biogeochemistry. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We have previously demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic FK866 order factor (BDNF) interacts with testosterone to regulate dendritic morphology of motoneurons in the highly androgen-sensitive spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). Additionally, in adult male rats testosterone regulates BDNF in SNB motoneurons and its target muscle, the bulbocavernosus (BC). Because BDNF is retrogradely transported from skeletal muscles to spinal motoneurons, we hypothesized that testosterone could regulate BDNF in SNB motoneurons by acting locally at the BC muscle. To test this hypothesis, we restricted androgen manipulation to the SNB target musculature. After castration, BDNF immunolabeling in SNB motoneurons was maintained at levels similar to those of gonadally intact males by delivering testosterone treatment directly to the BC muscle.

Here, sixteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve

Here, sixteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve Survivin inhibitor polymorphic loci were used to investigate the genetic variation on 30 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15, with the average of 6,000. The observed and expected heterozygosity values varied from 0.2333 to 0.9000 and 0.2096 to 0.9203, respectively. Only one locus (YBJX28) significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. No significant linkage

disequilibrium was detected. These polymorphic markers should be useful tool for assessing population genetics of Varanus salvator.”
“Krppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, is elevated in endometrial cancer tissues, and KLF17 induces the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial cancer cells via direct activation of key EMT inducer TWIST1.Krppel-like factor 17 (KLF17), a member of the KLF transcription factor family, has been shown to inhibit

the epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor growth. However, the expression, the cellular function and the mechanism of KLF17 in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC; a dominant type of endometrial cancer) remain elusive. Here, we report that among the KLF family members, KLF17 was consistently upregulated in EEC cell lines compared with immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. Overexpression of KLF17 in EEC cell lines induced EMT and promoted cell invasion C59 Wnt order and drug resistance, resulting in increased expression of TWIST1. In contrast, KLF17 suppression reversed EMT, diminished cell invasion, restored drug sensitivity and suppressed TWIST1 expression. Luciferase assays, site-directed mutagenesis and transcription factor DNA-binding analysis demonstrated that KLF17 transactivates A-1155463 clinical trial TWIST1

expression by directly binding to the TWIST1 promoter. Knockdown of TWIST1 prevented KLF17-induced EMT. Consistent with these results, both KLF17 and TWIST1 levels were found to be elevated in EECs compared with normal tissues. KLF17 expression positively correlated with tumor grade but inversely correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. Thus, KLF17 may have an oncogenic role during EEC progression via initiating EMT through the regulation of TWIST1.”
“Background With the continuous improvement of maneuvering performance of modern high-performance aircraft, the protection problem of flight personnel under high G acceleration, the development as well as research on monitoring system and the equipment for human physiological signals processing which include electroencephalogram (EEG) have become more and more important.

“Aims: To determine the breath alcohol elimination rate (A

“Aims: To determine the breath alcohol elimination rate (AER) and Widmark factor derived from the maximum breath alcohol concentration (r(peak BrAC)) in Chinese and Indians in Singapore, and to evaluate the contribution of genetic and non-genetic factors to variability of AER and r(peak BrAC). Methods: A total of 180 subjects ingested a vodka-orange juice mixture, together with a standardized meal and underwent a series of BrAC measurements. Results: Significant inter-ethnic GW4869 differences in AER and r(peak BrAC) were observed in females and

males, respectively. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genotypes were identified as significant predictors for AER among males, accounting for 8.5% (P = 0.048) and 23.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance, respectively. ADH1B genotype was identified as a significant predictor for r(peak BrAC) among males, accounting for 17.1% of the variance (P = 0.001). In females, however, none of the genotypes were found to be significant predictors for breath AER, and r(peak BrAC). Conclusion:

ALDH2 and/or ADH1B genotypes in males, but not in females, appear to contribute, albeit modestly, to variability in AER and r(peak BrAC). The median AER in Chinese males, Indian males, Chinese females and Indian females is 6.6 mu g dl(-1) h(-1) [99% confidence interval (CI), 5.6-7.5 mu g dl(-1) h(-1)], 6.2 mu g dl(-1) h(-1) (99% Selleckchem Oligomycin A CI, 5.5-7.0 mu g dl(-1) h(-1)), 8.6 mu g dl(-1) h(-1) (99% CI, 7.4-9.7 mu g dl(-1) h(-1)) and 7.4 mu g dl(-1) h(-1) (99% CI, 6.2-8.4 mu g dl(-1) h(-1)), respectively. The median r(peak BrAC) in Chinese males, Indian males, Chinese females and Indian females is 0.0229 (99% CI, 0.0216-0.0268),

0.0209 (99% CI, 0.0190-0.0237), 0.0214 (99% CI, 0.0185-0.0254) and 0.0199 (99% CI, 0.0187-0.0227), respectively.”
“Objectives-The goal of this work was to obtain and evaluate measurements of Selleckchem RG 7112 tissue sound speed in the breast, particularly dense breasts, using backscatter ultrasound tomography.\n\nMethods-An automated volumetric breast ultrasound scanner was constructed for imaging the prone patient. A 5- to 7-MHz linear array transducer acquired 17,920 radiofrequency pulse echo A-lines from the breast, and a back-wall reflector rotated over 360 degrees in 25 seconds. Sound speed images used reflector echoes that after preprocessing were uploaded into a graphics processing unit for filtered back-projection reconstruction. A velocimeter also was constructed to measure the sound speed and attenuation for comparison to scanner performance. Measurements were made using the following: (1) deionized water from 22 degrees C to 90 degrees C; (2) various fluids with sound speeds from 1240 to 1904 m/s; (3) acrylamide gel test objects with features from 1 to 15 mm in diameter; and (4) healthy volunteers.\n\nResults-The mean error +/- SD between sound speed reference and image data was -0.48% +/- 9.1%, and the error between reference and velocimeter measurements was -1.78% +/- 6.50%.

The effects of different concentrations of lipopolysaccharides we

The effects of different concentrations of lipopolysaccharides were assayed on mice macrophages as stimuli to produce nitric oxide and TNF- a production. Then, they were measured by Griess and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay respectively. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19.0. Using the Westphal method LPS can be isolated from both aforementioned Gram negative bacteria. The results suggest that the quantity of extraction and purification of LPS from A. tumefaciens and E. coli was dependent on culture volumes; 5 to 10 mg of LPS can be obtained from 1 liter of 24 hour culture respectively. The results indicate that the stimulating

effects of 500 ng/ml LPS concentration extracted from E. col; has the same effect as 1000 ng/ml concentration of LPS A. tumefaciens. E. coli LPS was more effective in stimulating production of TNF-alpha and to produce nitric oxide. The findings of this study suggest that the effect of 1000 ng LPS from A. tumefaciens was BYL719 manufacturer equal to 500 ng LPS from E.coli in stimulating macrophages to produce nitric BIBF 1120 price oxide. This demonstrated that the immunomodulatory effect with less toxicity.”
“We consider a discrete-time single-server queueing model where arrivals are governed by a discrete Markovian arrival process (DMAP), which captures both burstiness and correlation in the interarrival

times, and the service times and the vacation duration times are assumed to have a general phase-type distributions. The vacation policy is that of a working vacation policy where the server serves the customers at a lower rate during the vacation period as compared to the rate during the normal busy period. Various performance measures of this queueing system like the stationary queue length distribution, waiting time distribution and the distribution of regular MI-503 price busy period are derived. Through numerical experiments, certain insights are presented based on a comparison of the considered model with an equivalent model with independent

arrivals, and the effect of the parameters on the performance measures of this model are analyzed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a primary consequence of heavy and prolonged drinking. ALD contributes to the bulk of liver disease burden worldwide. Progression of ALD is a multifactorial and multistep process that includes many genetic and environmental risk factors. The molecular pathogenesis of ALD involves alcohol metabolism and secondary mechanisms such as oxidative stress, endotoxin, cytokines and immune regulators. The histopathological manifestation of ALD occurs as an outcome of complex but controlled interactions between hepatic cell types. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the key drivers of fibrogenesis, but transformation of hepatocytes to myofibroblastoids also implicate parenchymal cells as playing an active role in hepatic fibrogenesis. Recent discoveries indicate that lipogenesis during the early stages of ALD is a risk for advancement to cirrhosis.

(J Am Acad Dermatol 2009;61:294-302 )”
“Tuberous sclerosis c

(J Am Acad Dermatol 2009;61:294-302.)”
“Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and characterized by slow-growing tumors in multiple organs. Of the affected individuals, 10% display subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), which can lead to Selleckchem STI571 substantial neurological morbidity. The TSC1/TSC2 protein complex is a negative regulator of the mTOR pathway. Hence, mutations in these genes in preclinical models are associated

with increased mTOR pathway activation and heightened sensitivity to mTOR inhibitors. We hereby report our experience with RAD001 (Everolimus) therapy, a novel mTOR inhibitor, in inducing a dramatic regression of SEGAs.\n\nA patient with TSC and SEGAs was treated with 10 mg/day oral RAD001. MRIs and neuro-ophtalmological exams were performed

before and at regular intervals following the initiation of therapy.\n\nThe lesions exhibited significant regression in several tumor locations and stabilization in others, accompanied with an improvement of his visual status. Treatment was well tolerated for 11 months but was than discontinued due to hypertension and elevated CPK, without evidence for rhabdomyolysis. Yet, during 9 months following the AG-014699 supplier interruption of therapy, SEGAs remained unchanged.\n\nOral RAD001 demonstrated preliminary encouraging results as treatment of astrocytomas associated with TSC. These preliminary results were recently supported by the Novartis announcement of the phase II study of RAD001 for SEGAs, which was not published yet. According to their statement, 75% of the patients showed reduction of SEGAs’ volume following treatment with RAD001. Based on these results, RAD001 may be an alternative to surgery in selected patients with TSC and SEGAs.”
“It is well known that fish caudal fins can be completely regenerated after fin amputation. Although much research on fin regeneration has been

carried out, there have been very few reports regarding fin Epigenetics inhibitor regeneration after tail amputation. In this study, we used grass carp, common carp, koi carp, and zebrafish as experimental organisms. Some caudal fins could be distinctly regenerated in 2 weeks after tail amputation. After all-trans-retinoic acid treatment and tail amputation, zebrafish were unable to regenerate caudal fins that could be seen with the naked eye. However, after tail amputation, more than half of the zebrafish tested were able to regenerate caudal fins. Caudal fin regeneration depended on the presence of musculature and endoskeleton at the site of amputation. These caudal fins arose from segments of the endoskeleton, which contrast with currently accepted knowledge. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 312B:762-769, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Resistance is increasing to several critical antimicrobials used to treat Salmonella typhimurium infection, urging people to search for new antimicrobial agents.

The FKBP5 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs1360780,

The FKBP5 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), rs1360780, has been found to modulate GC sensitivity in stress-related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of rs1360780 on the treatment outcome of patients suffering from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) administered with GC. The polymorphism of FKBP5, rs1360780, was genotyped in 55 GC-resistant ITP patients, 157 GC-sensitive ITP patients and 110 unrelated click here healthy individuals using real-time PCR and cycling probe technology with DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences

in FKBP5 rs1360780 genotypes (P=0.51) and alleles (P=0.89) were observed between the GC-resistant ITP patients and the healthy controls. There were no significant differences observed between the GC-sensitive ITP patients and the healthy controls (P=0.40 for genotypes and P=0.62 for T allele), as well as between the GC-sensitive ITP patients and the GC-resistant patients (P=0.67 for genotypes and for T allele). The present study demonstrates that the FKBP5 polymorphism may not affect the response of ITP patients to GC treatment.”
“A formal synthesis of (+/-)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5′-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge

formation via pi-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21.”
“Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is gaining in popularity. An elbow GSK2126458 prosthesis is nowadays no longer regarded as a salvage procedure this website for low demand patients

but is increasingly used in younger, active patients with higher demands. In elderly patients TEA is more and more accepted as a primary treatment method for osteoporotic complex distal humerus fractures. Nevertheless, TEA is technically demanding and associated with a higher complication and revision rate compared to e.g. hip prostheses. Increasing implantation rates in a juvenescent population will lead to a considerable increase in revision rates. Most common causes are aseptic and septic loosening as well as implant failure and instability. Cemented semi-constrained prostheses are mostly used for revision elbow arthroplasty. This article deals with the causes of revision elbow arthroplasty and describes the operative technique of revision of total elbow arthroplasty.”
“Reproductive interference is one of the major factors mediating species exclusion among insects. The cryptic species Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex have invaded many parts of the world and often exhibit niche overlap and reproductive interference. However, contrasting patterns of competitive displacement between the two invaders have been observed between regions such as those in USA and China.

“O-GlcNAcylation is an inducible, highly dynamic


“O-GlcNAcylation is an inducible, highly dynamic

and reversible posttranslational modification, which regulates numerous cellular processes such as gene expression, translation, immune reactions, protein degradation, proteinprotein interaction, apoptosis, and signal transduction. In contrast to N-linked glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation does not display a strict amino acid consensus sequence, although serine or threonine residues flanked by proline and valine are preferred sites of O-GlcNAcylation. Based on this information, computational prediction tools of O-GlcNAc sites have been developed. Here, we retrospectively assessed the performance of two available O-GlcNAc prediction programs YinOYang 12 server and OGlcNAcScan by comparing their predictions

for recently discovered experimentally MK2206 validated O-GlcNAc sites. Both prediction programs efficiently identified O-GlcNAc sites situated in an environment resembling the consensus sequence P-P-V-[ST]-T-A. However, both prediction programs revealed numerous false negative O-GlcNAc predictions when the site of modification was located in an amino acid sequence differing from the known consensus sequence. By searching for a common sequence motif, we found that O-GlcNAcylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins preferably occurs at serine and threonine residues flanked downstream by proline and valine and upstream by one to two alanines followed by a stretch of serine and threonine residues. However, O-GlcNAcylation of proteins located in the

mitochondria or in the secretory lumen occurs at different sites and does not follow a distinct consensus sequence. Thus, our study indicates the limitations of the presently available computational prediction methods for O-GlcNAc sites and HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials suggests that experimental validation is mandatory. Continuously update and further development of available databases will be the key to improve the performance of O-GlcNAc site prediction. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Survival of polyploids in nature depends on several factors, including competition from diploid relatives and increased genetic diversity. Unlike other reported Centaurea polyploid complexes, diploid Centaurea aspera and tetraploid Centaurea seridis coexist in hybrid zones with frequent triploid individuals. The polyploid origin of C. seridis, the genetic diversity and population structure of the three cytotypes, and the degree of genetic differentiation among them were analyzed in seven mixed-ploidy zones, involving different subspecies and ecological conditions. Ploidy was determined by flow cytometry. Microsatellite data suggested an allopolyploid origin of C. seridis. In the contact zones, diploids and tetraploids were genetically differentiated. When compared with the related C. aspera, a low genetic diversity was observed in C.