“O-GlcNAcylation is an inducible, highly dynamic


“O-GlcNAcylation is an inducible, highly dynamic

and reversible posttranslational modification, which regulates numerous cellular processes such as gene expression, translation, immune reactions, protein degradation, proteinprotein interaction, apoptosis, and signal transduction. In contrast to N-linked glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation does not display a strict amino acid consensus sequence, although serine or threonine residues flanked by proline and valine are preferred sites of O-GlcNAcylation. Based on this information, computational prediction tools of O-GlcNAc sites have been developed. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html Here, we retrospectively assessed the performance of two available O-GlcNAc prediction programs YinOYang 12 server and OGlcNAcScan by comparing their predictions

for recently discovered experimentally MK2206 validated O-GlcNAc sites. Both prediction programs efficiently identified O-GlcNAc sites situated in an environment resembling the consensus sequence P-P-V-[ST]-T-A. However, both prediction programs revealed numerous false negative O-GlcNAc predictions when the site of modification was located in an amino acid sequence differing from the known consensus sequence. By searching for a common sequence motif, we found that O-GlcNAcylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins preferably occurs at serine and threonine residues flanked downstream by proline and valine and upstream by one to two alanines followed by a stretch of serine and threonine residues. However, O-GlcNAcylation of proteins located in the

mitochondria or in the secretory lumen occurs at different sites and does not follow a distinct consensus sequence. Thus, our study indicates the limitations of the presently available computational prediction methods for O-GlcNAc sites and HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials suggests that experimental validation is mandatory. Continuously update and further development of available databases will be the key to improve the performance of O-GlcNAc site prediction. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Survival of polyploids in nature depends on several factors, including competition from diploid relatives and increased genetic diversity. Unlike other reported Centaurea polyploid complexes, diploid Centaurea aspera and tetraploid Centaurea seridis coexist in hybrid zones with frequent triploid individuals. The polyploid origin of C. seridis, the genetic diversity and population structure of the three cytotypes, and the degree of genetic differentiation among them were analyzed in seven mixed-ploidy zones, involving different subspecies and ecological conditions. Ploidy was determined by flow cytometry. Microsatellite data suggested an allopolyploid origin of C. seridis. In the contact zones, diploids and tetraploids were genetically differentiated. When compared with the related C. aspera, a low genetic diversity was observed in C.

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