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“Atmospheric N deposition is known to

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“Atmospheric N deposition is known to severely impact forest ecosystem functioning by influencing soil biogeochemistry and nutrient balance, and consequently tree growth and overall forest health and biodiversity. Moreover, because climate greatly influences soil processes, climate change and atmospheric N deposition must both be taken into account when analysing the evolution of forest ecosystem status over time. Dynamic biogeochemical models

have been developed to test different climate and atmospheric N deposition scenarios and their potential interactions in the long term. In this study, the ForSAFE model was used to predict the combined effect of atmospheric N deposition and climate change on two temperate forest ecosystems in France dominated by oak and spruce, and more precisely on forest soil biogeochemistry, from today to selleck chemicals 2100. After a calibration step and following a careful statistical

validation process, two atmospheric N deposition scenarios were tested: the current legislation in Europe (CLE) and the maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. They were combined with three climate scenarios: current climate scenario, worst-case climate scenario (A2) and best-case climate scenario (B1). The changes in base saturation and inorganic N concentration in the soil solution were compared across all scenario combinations, with the aim of forecasting Androgen Receptor Antagonist the state of acidification, eutrophication and forest ecosystem recovery up to the year 2100. Simulations highlighted that climate had a

stronger impact on soil base saturation, whereas atmospheric deposition had a comparative effect or a higher effect than climate on N concentration in the soil solution. Although deposition remains the main factor determining the evolution of N concentration in soil solution, increased temperature had a significant effect. Results also highlighted the necessity of considering the joint effect of both climate and atmospheric N deposition on soil biogeochemistry. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We have previously demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic FK866 order factor (BDNF) interacts with testosterone to regulate dendritic morphology of motoneurons in the highly androgen-sensitive spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). Additionally, in adult male rats testosterone regulates BDNF in SNB motoneurons and its target muscle, the bulbocavernosus (BC). Because BDNF is retrogradely transported from skeletal muscles to spinal motoneurons, we hypothesized that testosterone could regulate BDNF in SNB motoneurons by acting locally at the BC muscle. To test this hypothesis, we restricted androgen manipulation to the SNB target musculature. After castration, BDNF immunolabeling in SNB motoneurons was maintained at levels similar to those of gonadally intact males by delivering testosterone treatment directly to the BC muscle.

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