Tumor-infiltrating Tregs in both types of liver tumors are characterized by significantly higher expression levels of GITR and ICOS compared with Tregs from TFL and blood. These molecules are regulators of their suppressive function30, 31 and can be targeted for immunotherapeutic intervention. Several reports suggest that signaling through GITR interferes with Treg-effector T cell interaction, either by abrogating Treg-suppressive function26, 31, 32 or by conferring effector T cells resistant to
Treg-mediated suppression.33, 34 Furthermore, GITR is up-regulated on activated conventional (FoxP3−) T cells, and GITR ligation may enhance effector T cell proliferation.25 Here we show that soluble GITRL partially prevents hyporesponsiveness of effector T cells coincubated with Tregs derived from both types of liver tumors. In our experiments, GITRL mediates its effect either Selleck Autophagy inhibitor by inhibition of Treg-mediated suppression or in combination with stimulation of
responder T cell proliferation, depending on the concentration used (10 versus 20 μg/mL). The lower concentration was used in our assays to allow easy interpretation of GITRL-induced effects on Treg suppression, without interference by its T cell stimulatory capacity. However, both the effect of GITRL on Tregs and T cells support the use of GITRL as a possible treatment in cancer, because it could simultaneously abolish the suppression mediated by Tregs and booster tumor-specific Ibrutinib concentration T cell responses.
Although more research is required to further understand the mechanism, the data suggest that manipulation of the GITR pathway holds promise as immunotherapeutic intervention in patients with HCC and LM-CRC. Potentially, it may serve as an adjuvant to immunotherapeutic interventions aimed at stimulating efficient effector T cell antitumor activity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that in both primary and secondary liver cancer, the tumor-specific T cell response is compromised. These tumors contain high numbers of activated Tregs, and these cells suppress tumor-specific T cell activity. GITR ligation is able to prevent hyporesponsiveness of effector T cells when Glutamate dehydrogenase coincubated with tumor-derived Tregs, and GITR may therefore be a target for immunotherapeutic intervention. We thank the surgeons and pathologists at Erasmus MC for providing and assisting with tissue handling, Andrea Woltman and Andre Boonstra for helpful discussion, and Ernesto Vargas-Mendez and Gertine van Oord for technical assistance. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. ”
“The impact of amino acid (aa) 70 substitution in the core region on hepatocarcinogenesis and survival for liver-related death in patients of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (HCV-1b), who had not received antiviral therapy, is unknown. The relationships among aa 70 substitution, IL28B genotype, and hepatocarcinogenesis are also not clear.