Study subjects were prospectively recruited from visitors to Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between 2009 and 2012. One hundred and twelve FD patients and 269 controls were enrolled. In SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, the frequency of S/S genotype was significantly
lower than that of L/L + L/S genotype in FD compared to controls (P < 0.05). After stratification according to Helicobacter pylori infection, the S/S genotype was significantly associated with H. pylori-positive epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) patients (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.99; P = 0.048). In TRPV1 945G>C polymorphism, the frequency of C/C genotype was lower in FD compared to controls (P = 0.057). The C carrier and C/C genotype was significantly associated with postprandial find more distress
syndrome (PDS) and EPS, respectively (adjusted OR 0.47 and 0.43; 95% CI 0.25–0.90 and 0.20–0.93; P = 0.021 and 0.033). After stratification, the significant associations remained in H. pylori-positive PDS and EPS patients (adjusted OR 0.37 and 0.28; 95% CI 0.16–0.88 and 0.09–0.85; P = 0.024 and 0.025). The genetic polymorphism of SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and TRPV1 945G>C could be one of the pathophysiological factors of FD, especially in the case of H. pylori-positive patients in Korea. ”
“Polo-like kinase (PLK) proteins play critical roles in the control of cell cycle progression, either favoring or inhibiting cell proliferation, and in DNA damage response. Although either overexpression or down-regulation https://www.selleckchem.com/products/PLX-4032.html of PLK proteins occurs frequently in various cancer types, no comprehensive analysis on their function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been performed to date. In the present study, we define roles for PLK1, PLK2, PLK3, and PLK4 during hepatocarcinogenesis. Levels of PLK1, as assessed by means of real-time reverse-transcription PCR and western blot analysis, were progressively increased from nonneoplastic surrounding liver tissues to HCC, reaching the highest
expression in tumors with poorer outcome (as defined by the length of patients’ survival) compared with normal livers. In sharp contrast, PLK2, O-methylated flavonoid PLK3, and PLK4 messenger RNA and protein expression gradually declined from nontumorous liver to HCC, with the lowest levels being detected in HCC with shorter survival. In liver tumors, PLK2-4 down-regulation was paralleled by promoter hypermethylation and/or loss of heterozygosity at the PLK2-4 loci. Subsequent functional studies revealed that PLK1 inhibition led to suppression of cell growth in vitro, whereas opposite effects followed PLK2-4 silencing in HCC cell lines. In particular, suppression of PLK1 resulted in a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and in massive apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro regardless of p53 status.