The stimuli were presented on video once every 2.3–6.2 s. As a control, we presented two horizontal black bars moving with the same time
courses and the same extent as the eyelids in the blink video. Both types of blinks and bars elicited clear responses peaking at about 200 ms in the occipital areas, with no systematic differences between hemispheres. For the bars, these main responses were (as expected) weaker see more (by 24%) and later (by 33 ms) to slow-motion than normal-speed stimuli. For blinks, however, the responses to both normal-speed and slow-motion stimuli were of the same amplitude and latency. Our results demonstrate that the brain not only responds to other persons’ eye blinks, but that the responses are as fast and of equal size even when the blinks are considerably slowed down. We interpret this finding to reflect the increased social salience of the slowed-down blinks that counteracted Buparlisib the general tendency of the brain
to react more weakly and more slowly to slowly- vs. quickly-changing stimuli. This finding may relate to the social importance of facial gestures, including eye blinks. ”
“Rodent models are a key factor in the process of translating psychiatric genetics and genomics findings, allowing us to shed light on how risk-genes confer changes in neurobiology by merging different types of data across fields, from behavioural neuroscience to the burgeoning omics (e.g. genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, etc.). Moreover, they also provide an indispensable first step for drug discovery. However, recent evidence from both clinical and genetic studies highlights possible limitations in the current methods for classifying psychiatric illness, as both symptomology and underlying genetic risk are found to increasingly overlap across disorder diagnoses. Meanwhile, integration of data from animal models across disorders is currently limited. Here, we argue that behavioural neuroscience is in danger of missing
informative data because of the practice of trying to ‘diagnose’ an animal model with a psychiatric illness. What is needed is a shift in emphasis, from seeking to ally an animal model to a specific disorder, to one focused on a more systematic assessment of Lck the neurobiological and behavioural outcomes of any given genetic or environmental manipulation. ”
“A major side effect of carbamazepine (CBZ), a drug used to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, is drowsiness, a state characterized by increased slow-wave oscillations with the emergence of sleep spindles in the electroencephalogram (EEG). We conducted cortical EEG and thalamic cellular recordings in freely moving or lightly anesthetized rats to explore the impact of CBZ within the intact corticothalamic (CT)–thalamocortical (TC) network, more specifically on CT 5–9-Hz and TC spindle (10–16-Hz) oscillations.