SP and BS participated in study design and coordination and contributed to data interpretation. VDP, SSR, and SS carried out cloning and generation of the recombinant phage. SH and NK performed in vivo studies. VDP and SSR helped draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the reversible activation of molecular hydrogen . The genome of Escherichia coli encodes four membrane-associated [NiFe]-hydrogenases, Selleckchem INCB024360 only three of which are synthesized under standard anaerobic
growth conditions. Two of these enzymes, hydrogenase 1 (Hyd-1) and Hyd-2, oxidize hydrogen while the third, Hyd-3, is part of the hydrogen-evolving formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex , which disproportionates formic acid into CO2 and H2 and is an important means of preventing acidification of the cytoplasm during mixed-acid fermentation. While all three Hyd enzymes are synthesized during fermentation Pexidartinib research buy Hyd-3 appears to contribute the bulk (80-90%) of the measureable hydrogenase activity (measured as H2: benzyl viologen oxidoreductase activity) under these conditions, with Hyd-2 and Hyd-1 contributing
the remainder . Moreover, it has been recently demonstrated that Hyd-2 is functional in hydrogen oxidation at more reducing redox potentials while Hyd-1 is optimally active at more oxidizing potentials and is less oxygen-sensitive than Hyd-2 . This presumably provides the bacterium with the capability of oxidizing hydrogen over a broad range of redox potentials. The active site of the [NiFe]-hydrogenases comprises a Ni atom and a Fe atom to which the diatomic ligands CO and CN- are attached . The Hyp proteins
synthesize this hetero-bimetallic centre and mutations in the genes encoding these Hyp maturases result in a hydrogenase-negative phenotype [2, 5]. Iron is also required as a key component of the [Fe-S] clusters in the respective electron-transferring small subunits of the hydrogenases [5, 6]. In addition, iron is required for the function of at least one of the Hyp maturases, Inositol monophosphatase 1 HypD [7, 8]. While the route of nickel transport for hydrogenase biosynthesis in E. coli has been well characterized [5, 9], it has not been determined which of the characterized iron uptake systems is important for delivering iron to the hydrogenase maturation pathway. E. coli has a number of iron transport systems for the uptake of both ferric and ferrous iron . Under anaerobic, reducing conditions Fe2+ is the predominant form of iron and it is transported by the specific ferrous-iron FeoABC transport system [11, 12]. Under oxidizing conditions, where the highly insoluble Fe3+ is the form that is available, E. coli synthesizes Fe3+-specific siderophores to facilitate iron acquisition . These Fe3+-siderophore complexes are transported into the cell by specific transport systems, e.g.