The only significant result of this analysis was that neck EMG responses evoked during the post-cue interval tended to be greater with the head unrestrained. Subsequent analyses of data restricted to that obtained with the head restrained revealed the same pattern of results emphasized below, and hence our results are not simply due to the inclusion of head-unrestrained
data. We therefore pooled data across head-restrained and head-unrestrained sessions. We also pooled data across stimulation of the right and left SEF, and refer to cue locations, saccades and muscles as being contra- or ipsilateral to the side of SEF stimulation. Our convention is to refer to saccade direction, and hence a correct contralateral Doxorubicin price anti-saccade requires the monkey to look away from an ipsilateral cue. A contralateral anti-saccade error is one where the monkey saccades incorrectly to a contralateral Opaganib solubility dmso cue. We first analysed whether short-duration ICMS-SEF directly evoked saccadic eye movements. During the fixation interval, saccades following stimulation but preceding cue
onset occurred on fewer than 1% of all appropriate stimulation trials. We also found no consistent difference in the change of eye position during the fixation interval between control trials and trials with stimulation during this interval (a t-test of the eye position changes reached significance in only three of the 52 sessions, and only one of these sessions showed the contralateral change in eye position that would be expected from stimulation). These analyses show that the animals maintained fixation during short-duration ICMS-SEF. We also found that the proportion of express saccades, which we leniently defined as RTs between 60 and 120 ms, was 2.5 ± 5.8% on control trials, and never exceeded 3% for trials with stimulation delivered at any interval. ROS1 These analyses emphasize the inability of short-duration ICMS-SEF to directly evoke saccades, even when
delivered during the post-cue interval. On control trials, both monkeys generated higher error rates (Fig. 2) and longer RTs (Fig. 3) on anti- vs. pro-saccade trials. Furthermore, the RTs of anti-saccade errors approached the RTs of pro-saccades (Fig. 3), and are not in the range of express saccades. These patterns replicate those reported in previous studies in monkeys generating intermixed pro- and anti-saccades (Amador et al., 1998; Bell et al., 2000). The influence of short-duration ICMS-SEF on error rates is shown in Fig. 2, collapsed across all experimental sessions. Short-duration ICMS-SEF exerted a negligible influence on either pro- or anti-saccades when delivered during the fixation interval (i.e. to the left of the vertical dashed line), but progressively impacted error rates the later it was delivered during the post-cue interval.