The result has something in common with reports that mast cell regulate neutrophil influx in a mouse model of arthritis by releasing proteases upon degranulation (27,28). Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in the vaginal discharges of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) play a key role in host defence by engulfing and destroying invading microorganisms and as such are important effectors of the acute inflammatory response. A key event in such processes is the migration of PMNs out of the circulation and across both endothelial and epithelial tissue barriers in response
to chemotactic stimuli. We showed previously that T. vaginalis-induced neutrophil recruitment may be brought about by the IL-8 produced by neutrophils in response to activation by live
T. vaginalis (29). The chemotactic DMXAA ability of TCM and M-TCM reported here adds to our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in neutrophil infiltration in trichomoniasis. We conclude that inflammatory mediators expressed by VEC in response to activation by live T. vaginalis PD98059 cell line caused mast cells to migrate and to be activated and subsequently to induce neutrophil migration. In conclusion, we show for the first time that VEC may play a role in the infiltration of mast cell and neutrophil early in T. vaginalis infection. This work was supported by Basic Science Research Programme through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2009-0074788). Figure S1. Summary of experimental design. ”
“The genes coding for the main molecules involved in the human immune system – immunoglobulins, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) – exhibit a very high level of polymorphism that reveals remarkable frequency variation in human populations. ‘Genetic marker’ (GM) allotypes located in the constant domains of IgG
antibodies have been studied for over 40 years through serological typing, leading to the identification of a variety of GM haplotypes whose frequencies vary sharply from one geographic region to another. An impressive diversity of HLA alleles, which results in amino acid substitutions Lck located in the antigen-binding region of HLA molecules, also varies greatly among populations. The KIR differ between individuals according to both gene content and allelic variation, and also display considerable population diversity. Whereas the molecular evolution of these polymorphisms has most likely been subject to natural selection, principally driven by host–pathogen interactions, their patterns of genetic variation worldwide show significant signals of human geographic expansion, demographic history and cultural diversification.