A questionnaire was e-mailed to each of the affected students to ascertain the clinical details of INK 128 purchase their illness and any exposure to potential sources of histoplasmosis infection during the field trip. A 22-year-old biology graduate developed fever (38.8°C) and flu-like symptoms, 12 days after returning from the
rainforest in Uganda. Figure 1 shows the patient peering out from inside the hollow trunk of the second largest tree in the forest, during the last week of the field trip. A number of her fellow students ventured into the same tree, which was infested with bats. The patient went on to develop a dry cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath on exertion. She initially sought health advice in Quebec, Canada, during a subsequent field trip. A chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral miliary shadowing and induced sputum was negative on staining for acid-fast bacilli. The patient expedited her return home and was reviewed at a district general hospital in the UK with ongoing chest pain and exertional dyspnoea, 3 weeks after symptom onset. Physical examination was normal, oxygen saturation
was 93% on air, and a repeat chest X-ray showed persistent bilateral miliary shadowing (Figure 2). She was referred to the Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital in Liverpool, UK, with suspected pulmonary histoplasmosis. Serum antibodies to H capsulatum LDK378 solubility dmso were detected by complement fixation test and double diffusion at the Mycology Reference Centre in Leeds, UK. She made a gradual recovery over only the ensuing weeks without medication. A 21-year-old male presented to Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge, UK, 2 weeks after the same field trip, with a productive cough and shortness of breath for 5 days and night sweats for 2 days. X-ray and computerized tomography imaging indicated mediastinal lymphadenopathy, bilateral pulmonary micronodules, bibasal consolidation,
tiny effusions, and an enlarged spleen at 14 cm. He required admission to the intensive care unit for noninvasive ventilation and was treated with intravenous amoxicillin/clavulanic acid plus clarithromycin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was negative on fungal staining and culture. He made rapid recovery and was discharged from the hospital 6 days after admission. Serum antibodies to H capsulatum were detected by complement fixation test during convalescence. Out of 24 taking part in the field trip, 13 students from 10 different countries (including the cases above) developed an acute respiratory illness (Table 1). Details for each case were obtained with the assistance of the first patient and from individual questionnaire responses. Questionnaires were returned by 10 of 13 affected students.