The principal of the creation of silicone rubber models were as described previously by Liepsch et al. and Mücke et al.[22, 24] A silicone rubber nucleus of prior end-to-side anastomosed pig coronary arteries—whether conventional technique or OES technique—were embedded in silicone rubber to create a model specific casting mould. The casting mould was used to produce multiple wax nucleus duplicates of each model. The model specific wax nucleus then was covered with three layers of transparent, addition-curing silicone rubber ELASTOSIL® RT 601 (Wacker Chemistry AG; Munich, Germany; component A : component B 9:1). After hardening
the wax nucleus was melted out. Finally, the wax and released remnants were rinsed off with Isopropanol (Fig. 2). A transparent glycerol-water
mixture with a polyacrylamid this website solution was used as a perfusion fluid. The desired non-Newtonian flow behaviour was achieved by adding different polyacrylamides (0.0035% Separan AP-302 and 0.0025% AP-45, Dow Chemical; Midland, MI).[24, 25] The viscosity of the perfusion fluid was measured with a Rheometer (Rotovisco RV 100; HAAKE Mess-Technik GmbH u. Co; Karlsruhe, Germany) (Fig. 3). The perfusion fluid, the embedded fluid of the model and the model wall had the same refraction index of 1.41. The simulation of the complex human cardiovascular system was accomplished by using a circulatory experimental setup that equates to the physiological, pulsatile human blood flow Apoptosis Compound Library at the level of the superior thyroid artery Obeticholic Acid designed for vessels in diameter of 1–2 mm (Fig. 3). The fluid, which was transported into a reservoir, flew into
an adjustable overflow container, which assured the desired constant static pressure in the model. Then the fluid flew through the model into the liquid container. The pressure reduction upstream of the model reduces distracting movements of the model and the air tanks downstream to the model reduce pulse wave reflections. Raising or lowering additional regulation tanks adjusted the desired flow rate. Physiological pulsatile flow was created by a computer-driven piston pump, which superimposed an oscillatory pulse on the steady flow. Various flow and pulse waveforms were created by changing the piston stroke. The flow pulse rate was adjusted at 60 cycles per minute. The outgoing data from Doppler-signal-processor was forwarded to a data processor. Measurements were performed in four planes, which were located proximal (3 and 1 mm) and distal (1 and 2 mm) to a defined reference point. The measurement plane of 1 mm proximal to the reference point lay in the cross-sectional area of the end-to-side anastomosis. The reference point was located at the heel (1 mm downstream the angle between main and branching vessel) of each end-to-side anastomosis (Fig. 4). The flow velocity was measured with a one-component laser Doppler anemometer system (BBC Goerz.