Par (=partition) proteins are encoded by various plasmids and are essential for the proper partition of (especially larger) plasmids to the bacterial daughter
cells. In these systems, ParB binds in a sequence-specific way to the plasmid DNA, and ParA is acting as an ATPase involved in plasmid partition (Funnell & Slavcev, 2004). Sequence comparisons demonstrated that parA and parB genes are present in close proximity to the respective repA genes not only in pNL1 and pCAR3 but also on the two other groups of large plasmids identified above (Table 1). To further confirm the suggested classification of the ‘megaplasmids’ from sphingomonads, phylogenetic trees were constructed derived from the RepA, ParA and ParB sequences. These comparisons demonstrated Talazoparib in vivo for the three independently constructed dendrograms, a rather similar organization
(Fig. 2). Thus, in all three dendrograms, pCAR3, pNL1, pSWIT02 and Mpl (=‘Mega-RepAC’) clustered together. Furthermore, also pCHQ1, pSLCP, pSPHCH01, pISP0 and pLA1 (=‘Mega-Rep3’) formed a clearly defined cluster. There was only some variability regarding the ‘Mega-RPA’-group, as the ParA and ParB sequences from plasmid pISP1 did not cluster together with the sequences from plasmids pNL2 and Lpl in the dendrograms. Nevertheless, the relevant sequences from these three plasmids were always clearly separated from the two other groups (Fig. 2). For the smaller plasmids pUT1, pISP2, pISP3, pISP4 and pDL2, only
parA genes had been annotated in close proximity to the respective repA genes. The parA genes from these plasmids are significantly smaller compared with those found in the three groups of ‘megaplasmids’ and encode selleck screening library only for proteins of about ID-8 210 aa (Table 1). The sequence comparisons showed for plasmids pUT1, pISP2 and pPDL2 that in each case between the genes annotated as repA or parA, an additional small open reading frame (ORF) was present. These ORFs coded for proteins of 94–95 amino acid residues. An alignment of these sequences from pUT1, pISP2 and pPDL2 (YP_003543404, YP_006965787, YP_006965787) demonstrated that the encoded proteins are almost completely identical (92 identical amino acid residues). The conservation of the sequence and the position of these ORFs suggest that the encoded small proteins function as ParB. Similar combinations of ParA proteins with sizes of about 210–220 aa and ParB proteins with sizes of 70–95 aa have previously been described for plasmids related to plasmid pTAR from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Kalnin et al., 2000; Funnell & Slavcev, 2004). It has been suggested recently that the structural coupling of a repA (or repB) gene together with a parAB operon, an origin of replication (oriV) and a palindromic centromere seems to be typical for replicons from Alphaproteobacteria. In this context, it also has been suggested that the replicons from this group of bacteria could be classified into only four different systems.