9–12 Similar results were found for the vasoconstrictor drugs octreotide and noradrenalin.13, 14 A systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized trials revealed that terlipressin may reduce mortality in HRS.15 However, the included trials had methodological problems including
unclear bias control, the use of a crossover design, and short treatment durations. Furthermore, the total number of patients was 51. Subsequent trials were larger, but the results regarding clinical outcome measures—including mortality—remained inconclusive.16–19 A recent meta-analysis see more including five trials revealed a beneficial effect of terlipressin alone or with albumin compared with placebo alone or with albumin on reversal of HRS.20 No effect on survival was identified. The included trials were single-blind or double-blind using a parallel arm or crossover design. The decision to exclude trials without blinding (but include single-blind trials)
while including trials with unclear randomization is debatable.21, 22 Unlike randomization, the evidence concerning the importance of blinding to the control of bias is inconsistent.21, 22 No association between single-blinding and the control of bias has been identified. Furthermore, it may be argued that including data from both periods of crossover trials when assessing a disease RG-7388 cell line with a fluctuating course is debatable. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomized trials on vasoconstrictor drugs for HRS. CI, confidence interval; HRS, hepatorenal syndrome; RR, relative risk. The present systematic review is based on a published protocol.15 The review includes randomized trials
on patients with type 1 or 2 HRS1, 3 without restrictions regarding the control of bias, publication status, or this website language. The treatment comparisons included (1) vasoconstrictor drugs alone or with albumin versus no intervention or albumin and (2) comparisons of different vasoconstrictor drugs or modes of administration. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures included reversal of HRS defined as serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL (133 μmol/L), improvement in renal function (as defined by authors of included trials), serum creatinine, and adverse events. Electronic searches were performed in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, and EMBASE.15 Manual searches included scanning of reference lists, conference proceedings, registers of ongoing trials (www.controlled-trials.com/mrct), and correspondence with experts. The last search update was performed in June 2009. Three authors (L. G., K. C., and A. K.) independently extracted data. Authors of included trials were contacted for additional information not described in the published reports.