A number of pharmacists described the development of a mature patient-safety culture – one that is open about reporting errors and active in reducing their occurrence. Others described work settings in which a culture of blame persists, stifling error reporting and ultimately compromising patient safety. Australian hospital pharmacists hold a variety of attitudes that reflect diverse workplace cultures towards patient safety, error and incident reporting. This study has provided an insight into these attitudes and the actions that are needed to improve the patient-safety culture within Australian hospital pharmacy work settings. ”
To assess medicine dispensing practices in private pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania and recommend interventions to improve practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey and observational
study of dispensing 5-Fluoracil practices among 70 pharmacies in metropolitan Dar-es-Salaam, INCB018424 price Tanzania. Key findings There were 1479 dispensing encounters recorded across the 70 pharmacies. This translated to 1573 medicines dispensed. Of the medicines dispensed, 16% were anti-infectives; 45% of the dispensed medicines were requested by the client, 32% were recommended by the dispenser and only 23% were on prescriptions. The main reasons for pharmacy consultations were coughs (62%), general pain (62%) and ‘flu and colds. Malaria constituted 21% mafosfamide of the private pharmacy visits. Of the cough encounters, 30% received antibiotics. In addition, oral antibiotics were given to 81% of the clients with diarrhoea and to 95% of those with eye and ear problems. Of the 628 clients who requested specific medicines without a prescription, only 29% were asked questions on why the medicines were required. Of the clients who bought antibiotics, 20% bought incomplete doses. In total, 1180 clients were interviewed. Of these, 35% could not repeat the instructions given to them by the dispenser. Of the 70 dispensers who gave dosage instructions, only 20% gave them according to guidelines. Conclusion In Tanzania, an overwhelming proportion of medicines sold in pharmacies are dispensed
without a prescription. The majority of medicines dispensed without a prescription are either requested by the client or recommended by the dispenser. When dispensing medicines, dispensers seldom give dosage instructions; when they do, the instructions are often not consistent with guidelines. A high proportion of clients seeking management of coughs and colds or for diarrhoea from private pharmacies receive antibiotics. Interventions that build the capacity of dispensers, improve the rational use of antibiotics and the management of diarrhoea in private pharmacies in Tanzania are necessary to provide consistent quality services to a populace that relies heavily on the private sector for their medications needs.