In Mollicutes, several adhesins have been reported in mycoplasmas and spiroplasmas. Adhesins P40 of Mycoplasma agalactiae and P89 of Spiroplasma citri contain a conserved amino acid sequence known as the Mollicutes adhesin motif (MAM), whose function in the host cell adhesion remains unclear. Here, we show that phytoplasmas, which are plant-pathogenic mollicutes transmitted
by insect vectors, possess an adhesion-containing MAM that was identified in a putative membrane protein, PAM289 (P38), of the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris,’ OY strain. P38 homologs and their MAMs were highly conserved in related phytoplasma strains. While P38 protein was expressed in OY-infected insect and plant hosts, binding assays showed that P38 interacts with insect extract, and weakly with plant extract. Interestingly, the interaction of P38 with the selleck products insect extract depended on MAM. These results suggest that P38 is a phytoplasma adhesin that interacts with the hosts. In addition, the MAM of adhesins
ABT-199 manufacturer is important for the interaction between P38 protein and hosts. ”
“Current antibiotics continue to lose effectiveness for infectious diseases, especially in cases where the bacteria from a biofilm. This review article summarizes control mechanisms for bacterial biofilm, with an emphasis on the modification of signal transduction pathways, such as quorum sensing and two-component signaling, by externally added metabolic intermediates. As a link between central metabolism and signal transduction, we discuss the activation of two-component response regulators by activated
acetate intermediates in response to signals from the environment. These signals constitute ‘nutrients’ for the bacteria in most cases. Depending on the identity of the nutrient, biofilm amounts may be reduced. The nutrient may then be used for the development of both novel prevention and treatment options for biofilm-associated Selleck ZD1839 infectious diseases. ”
“The ability of microorganisms to survive and thrive within hostile environments depends on rapid and robust stress responses. Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways are important stress-signalling modules found in all eukaryotes, including eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi. These pathways consist of a SAPK that is activated by phosphorylation through a kinase cascade, and once activated, the SAPK phosphorylates a range of cytoplasmic and nuclear target substrates, which determine the appropriate response. However, despite their conservation in fungi, mechanisms that have evolved to relay stress signals to the SAPK module in different fungi have diverged significantly. Here, we present an overview of the diverse strategies used in the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, to sense and transduce stress signals to their respective SAPKs.