Maternal report of drinking during pregnancy was validated by examining fatty acid ethyl esters of alcohol in meconium specimens obtained from a subsample of newborns who participated in this study (Bearer et al., 2003). In addition to the quantitative alcohol interview, alcohol abuse and/or dependence were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria using the alcohol module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Each mother was also asked at both the antenatal
Metformin and postnatal interviews how many cigarettes she smoked per day and how frequently (days/month) she used illicit drugs, including cocaine, marijuana, and methaqualone (mandrax), during pregnancy. Birth weight and head circumference were obtained from hospital medical records (see Carter et al., 2005). Gestational age (GA) was calculated from early pregnancy ultrasound examination or expected date of confinement, when ultrasound data were not available. Complexity of play was assessed at 13 months using the procedure developed by Belsky et al. (1984) and adapted by S. W. Jacobson et al. (1993). Ten minutes of spontaneous play with a set of toys similar to those used by Belsky et al. were video-taped and described simultaneously by
a trained observer on audiotape. Suggestion and modeling BMN 673 chemical structure were then used to elicit progressively higher levels of play than those spontaneously exhibited by the infant. Trained scorers coded the tapes on a 14-level complexity-of-play scale to reflect the following developmental sequence. Initially, play with objects consists of undifferentiated behaviors, such as simple mouthing and banging. The infant then begins to demonstrate knowledge of the functions of real objects by gesture (enactive naming). Infants then enact/pretend everyday activities involving the object (raising cup to lip; stroking own hair with a miniature brush), and later pretending
becomes decentered, so that the infant applies pretend schemes to dolls and self, for example, feeds doll or self with spoon or pushes a car on the floor while making a car noise. Play is then integrated into sequences and later the infant is able to imbue Apoptosis inhibitor seemingly meaningless objects with meaning (substitution). Following Belsky et al., spontaneous play was defined as the highest level of play observed during the initial 10-min free play period; elicited play, as the highest level elicited by the examiner. Quality of parenting was evaluated at 12 months on the HOME (Caldwell & Bradley, 1979), which combines a semistructured maternal interview with observation of mother–infant interaction. The interview was conducted by an examiner who was blind with respect to the play assessment.