Informed consents were obtained from all the enrolled patients and healthy donors. PBMCs were separated from heparinized peripheral blood by density gradient separation using LymphoprepTM gradient solution (Axis-Schield, Oslo, Norway). The cell suspension was washed twice in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For monoclonal antibody staining, the
cell concentration was adjusted to 2·5 × 106 per ml (in sterile PBS). For the preparation of whole blood lymphocytes, the methodology described by Ferry et al. was used . One hundred μl of the prepared PBMC suspension or washed whole blood was added to the monoclonal antibody cocktail for fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) staining. Osimertinib mw The antibody cocktail included CD20-allophycocyanin-cyanin 7 (APC-Cy7) (Becton Dickinson, Oxford, UK), CD27-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark), CD43-phycoerythrin (PE) (Becton
Dickinson), IgM-Cy5 (Jackson Laboratories, Midostaurin clinical trial Newmarket, UK), CD21-PECy5 (Becton Dickinson) and CD5-PE-Cy7 (Becton Dickinson). Additional flow cytometric analyses were performed using CD3-PE-Cy7, CD27-APC, CD38-PE and IgD-PE obtained from Becton Dickinson; CD19-PE-Cy5 and CD21-FITC from Beckman Coulter (High Wycombe, UK). Stained cells were read on the FACS Canto II (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and data analysed using BD FACS Diva software version 6·0. Lymphocytes were examined using forward/side-scatter gating; B cells were identified subsequently as CD19+ or CD20+
cells Resveratrol within the lymphocyte population. Each tube was run until 10 000 events were recorded in the B cell gate or the tube was exhausted. Our gating strategy was based on fluorescence minus one technique (FMO) to determine correctly the positivity in expression of each considered surface marker. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and Prism GraphPad version 5 Software (GraphPad Prism, San Diego, CA, USA). Medians and sample interquartile ranges (IQR) were used to represent the average values and variability unless another data presentation method is stated explicitly. The non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test was used to determine the significance of differences between patient and control group, unless stated otherwise. For all analyses, P < 0·05 was considered to be statistically significant. Although the examination of CD27+CD43+ B cells in human peripheral blood has been based so far on PBMC separation , we also examined a parallel whole blood staining method to assess its potential benefits for routine diagnostic testing. Testing of the reproducibility of the whole blood method compared to the standard PBMC method showed a significant correlation in the CD27+CD43+ B cell percentages (r = 1·0, P = 0·02) (Fig. 1). This strong correlation led us to fully adopt a whole blood method for all future B1 cell phenotype analysis. Figure 2a,b shows how the cells were first gated for CD20 and then analysed for CD27 and CD43 expression.