He found that when the bacteria AZD3965 mouse contained colored carotenoids, they were protected

from fluorescence quenching by far red light (Mayne 1965). At this time, the idea that a pigment, P700, discovered by Bessel Kok (Kok 1956, 1957), might be the reaction center of Photosystem I (PSI) in plants was being discussed. Following earlier studies with bacteria by Clayton, Berger and Dan Rubinstein demonstrated that light-induced P700 bleaching was approximately half reversible in cyanobacteria at liquid nitrogen temperature (for a detailed discussion on P700, see Ke 2001). These experiments supported the idea that, analogous to “P870” in photosynthetic bacteria, P700 might be the primary electron donor of PSI (Mayne and Rubinstein 1966). Connection between delayed light emission (delayed fluorescence) and the chemiosmotic hypothesis (by Darrell Fleischman) Berger Mayne and Rod Clayton began a detailed study of delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE) in chloroplasts (for a review on DLE, see Govindjee and Jursinic 1979). Mayne and Clayton

(1967) examined the effects of a variety of electron transport and phosphorylation inhibitors and phosphorylation uncouplers on DLE and found that, under a variety of conditions, Inhibitor Library the intensity of DLE mirrored the predicted magnitude of the so-called high-energy phosphorylation intermediate. DLE increased when Hill reaction electron acceptors were added, and was inhibited by PSII inhibitors

such as DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) 1,1 dimethylurea] and by phosphorylation uncouplers. DLE was also inhibited by phosphorylation cofactors (which would consume the intermediate during ATP formation), but the intensity was restored Silibinin by “energy transfer inhibitors” such as phlorizin. At about this time, Jagendorf and Uribe (1966) reported that chloroplasts could form ATP without illumination if they were incubated briefly in a low pH medium (acid) followed by quick addition of a base. The acid–base transition was believed to have created a proton concentration difference across the thylakoid membrane. This “proton gradient” would be the concentration part of the protonmotive force (pmf) postulated to be the “high energy intermediate” in Peter Mitchell’s chemiosmotic hypothesis (Mitchell 1961). Mayne and Clayton (1967) reasoned that if the high energy intermediate were the precursor of delayed fluorescence, and if it could be generated by an acid–base transition, it should be possible to produce light emission by an acid–base transition—in effect a reversal of the light-driven formation of the proton gradient. They subjected chloroplasts to a similar acid–base transition in front of a photomultiplier, and found that a burst of light was indeed emitted when the base was injected (Mayne 1966; Mayne and Clayton 1966).