This diet is only choline-deficient and thus is ideal for studying the sequential progression of steatohepatitis producing human NAFLD. This work is important because Kodama et al.16 demonstrated that JNK1 in hematopoietic (non–insulin-producing) cells is indispensable for hepatic steatosis–induced inflammation by Kupffer cell activation. To better define the tissue-specific function of JNK1, in vivo knockdown in mice has been assessed with different experimental Torin 1 order approaches. Antisense oligonucleotides,1 adenovirus-mediated delivery of JNK1 short hairpin RNA,11 and transgenic expression of a mitogen-activated
protein kinase phosphatase (dual specificity phosphatase 9)17 suppress JNK activation. Collectively, these approaches demonstrate increased insulin sensitivity, loss of susceptibility to hepatic steatosis, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content concomitant with decreased liver injury and cell death.1, 13 Recently, Davis’ group established conditional JNK1 knockout animals. These animals are a major breakthrough for better defining the tissue-specific role of JNK1 in the pathophysiology of obesity-related diseases.18, 19 In the present report,20 the group used hepatocyte-specific JNK1 knockout (JNK1Δhepa) mice. Interestingly, these mice exhibited glucose intolerance
in contrast to several previous studies employing intravenous delivery of adenoviruses.11, Selleck DAPT 21 Potentially, these differences can be explained by the disruption of JNK1 signaling in different cell types because this approach lacks absolute hepatocyte specificity. Additionally, JNK1Δhepa mice showed decreased hepatic protein kinase B (AKT) activation associated with reduced insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS-1. 上海皓元 They also found triglyceride accumulation linked to increased dietary lipid absorption, decreased fat oxidation, and/or increased
lipogenesis. Thus, de novo lipogenesis may contribute to steatosis in JNK1Δhepa mice. Indeed, livers from these mice exhibited increased expression of genes that promote hepatic lipogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1β (PGC1β; a key activator of hepatic lipogenesis) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and a concomitant increase in microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP). The important role of MTP for lipoprotein assembly has also been confirmed by other studies.11, 22, 23 In Fig. 1, the existing data and the conclusions taken from Sabio et al.’s report20 are depicted, and the important role of JNK1 in metabolic syndrome is shown. Insulin resistance represents a central characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF) modulate JNK1 activity. JNK1 activation increases IRS-1 phosphorylation and prevents its interaction with the insulin receptor; this results in insulin resistance.