The development of various techniques and microRNA reagents has enabled work to progress very rapidly in this area. In the present article the authors describe the methods they have used that have enabled them to contribute to our current understanding of the role of microRNAs in diabetic nephropathy. ”
“This is an update of a previous CARI Guideline on management of anaemia in CKD patients. ”
“Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. The term idiopathic or primary as opposed to secondary, is used when no cause can be deduced from the medical history, physical examination, or laboratory tests commonly performed to assess a
patient with proteinuria. The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) was identified as an important selleck chemicals llc antigenic target
in the pathogenesis of IMN and the presence of circulating PLA2R antibodies was closely association with disease activity in patients with IMN. It is becoming increasingly clear and more widely accepted that IMN is an organ-specific autoimmune disease involving the kidneys. Prognosis in patients with IMN and nephrotic syndrome is more variable. Around 30% of patients develop spontaneous GSK3235025 in vitro remission 1–2 years after diagnosis. However, 30–40% of patients progress toward end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within 5–15 years. Immunosuppressant therapy has been reported to induce disease remission and reduce the risk of progression to ESRD or death. Alkylating agents and corticosteroids have been shown to be effective in nephrotic IMN patients in many trials, and these agents should be considered the gold standard of therapy. Despite the favourable results with alkylating agents, there is a reluctance to prescribe them due to the short-term and potential long-term adverse effects. Short-term effects include myelosuppression and the risk of infertility, which is a concern for patients of childbearing age. The
risk of cancer remains a long-term Liothyronine Sodium concern. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory drug that inhibits mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (an enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine synthesis). In addition, it plays a key role in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotide uridine monophosphate, and it has been reported to have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory actions. This double action is thought to slow the progression of autoimmune diseases and approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of new immunosuppressive agents and biologicals has provided hope for effective and safer treatment of patients with IMN. However, the efficacy and safety of LEF for patients with IMN with nephrotic syndrome is still controversial. The natural history of IMN is quite variable, and many studies have reported a relatively good outcome in untreated patients.