Also, flow statistics (Figure 3b, Table 1) indicated that southward currents were faster even if the corresponding wind forcing was much weaker. The fastest SSE sub-surface current (34.4 cm s− 1, Table 1) occurred with a 4.6 m s− 1 wind blowing from the direction of 275°. The fastest NNW current (26.5 cm s− 1), however, was forced by a sustained 11.3 m s− 1 wind. On a small-scale map (e.g. Figure 1) the Kõiguste coast likewise seems relatively straight, but it actually has many small fjord-like bays, sub-marine shoals and islets, and no upwelling or upwelling-related
coastal jets have been found there (Figure 2). Throughout the measuring period, the average wave buy INK 128 height at Kõiguste was relatively small due to ice cover, which either diminished fetch lengths or cut waves off altogether. However, in the first 80 days Nutlin-3a cell line the average Hs was 0.39 m at Kõiguste and 0.28 at Matsi. As a result of restricted fetch lengths (approximately 150 km to SSE for Kõiguste and to SSW for Matsi) and the absence of severe storm conditions during the measurements, the maximum measured wave heights did not exceed 3 m ( Table 1). The maximum Hs value was 1.63 m at Matsi and 1.96 m at Kõiguste, the energy wave periods peaked at 9.8 seconds at Kõiguste and 7.7 s at Matsi. Figure 4 compares (validates) the current velocity
components measured at Matsi and those modelled with the 2D hydrodynamic model. The 2D model calculates the depth-averaged currents at the grid-points. The ‘measurements’ represent the time series of vertically averaged values over the depth range 2–9 m from the bottom. In addition, we assumed the vertical profile for the lowest 2 m would be constant and equal to the lowest measured cell until 1 m from the bottom, and that the bottom velocity would be zero. For the upper 2 m layer the profile was extrapolated cAMP up to the surface, depending on the uppermost measured cell, using the coefficients found in a procedure that minimizes the variance between the measured and modelled series over the full validation period. In general the velocity
obtained over the vertical profile was slightly higher than the simple average of the measurements. The comparison was performed at Matsi only. It was not possible to fully reproduce the rather complex micro-relief of the south-eastern coast of Saaremaa Island in the generalization with the 1 km grid-spacing of the model. As a result, the modelled currents at the ‘Kõiguste’ point showed prevailing longshore movements, whereas the actual measurements were more scattered. At Matsi, both the modelled u and v velocity components ( Figure 4a,b) showed rather good agreement with the measurements. The longshore, anti-clockwise rotated v-component (by 29 degrees, see also Figure 3b), which was used later in the climatological scale hindcast, showed somewhat larger magnitudes as the respectively rotated u-component carried less variability.