To address the question of whether pORF102 specifically recognizes telomeric DNA, we aimed to produce recombinant Dapagliflozin solubility dmso protein in E. coli for use in EMSA. All attempts to prepare hexahistidine-tagged pORF102 or fusions of pORF102 with a chitin-binding domain failed, because all proteins precipitated with the insoluble fraction of cell extracts (data not shown). An N-terminal fusion with MBP yielded soluble protein, which could be purified to near electrophoretic homogeneity (Fig. 3a). Because cleavage of MBP-pORF102 with factor Xa protease and the subsequent attempt
to remove MBP by affinity chromatography again resulted in loss of soluble protein, EMSAs were performed with the fusion protein. Migration of ssDNA was retarded by MBP-pORF102 selleck inhibitor (Fig. 3b), whereas the mobility of double-stranded DNA was not affected by an up
to 1000-fold molar excess of protein (not shown). However, the shift in retardation with increasing protein concentrations suggests nonstoichiometric binding of pORF102 to the ssDNA, and interaction of the fusion protein with ssDNA representing an internal coding sequence of pAL1 indicated that the MBP-pORF102 protein was not able to specifically recognize telomeric DNA sequences (Fig. 3b). However, it cannot be excluded that recognition fails because the conformation of ssDNA under the experimental conditions differs from the native in vivo conformation of telomeric 3′-overhangs of pAL1 or because the MBP fusion (which, as shown above, did not prevent Arthrobacter from using MBP-pORF102 for in vivo replication of pAL1) impedes specific in vitro DNA binding. In this context, it is noteworthy that binding of the terminal protein TpgL of Streptomyces lividans to ssDNA corresponding to the 3′-overhang of plasmid pSLA2 telomeres also showed little specificity (Bao & Cohen, 2003). Idoxuridine Similar to what was
observed in the Streptomyces system, recruitment of pORF102 to the termini of pAL1 might require additional proteins. To investigate whether pORF102 can act as a replication priming protein, we used an in vitro deoxynucleotidylation assay, which contained an ssDNA template representing the 3′-terminal 70 nucleotides of the ‘left’ end of pAL1, purified MBP-pORF102 protein, a crude extract of A. nitroguajacolicus Rü61a, MBP-pORF101 fusion protein that exhibits DNA polymerase activity (unpublished data), ATP, and different [α-32P]dNTPs in a Mg2+-containing buffer. As shown in Fig. 4, dCMP was specifically incorporated into the 64.1-kDa MBP-pORF102 protein. The deoxynucleotidylation was not detected in the absence of pORF102 or pORF101 (Fig. 4), or in the absence of crude extract, ATP, or Mg2+ (data not shown). When the single-stranded ‘left70’ DNA was omitted from the reaction, dNMP incorporation into pORF102-MBP likewise was not observed (not shown), indicating that the reaction requires a DNA template. Specific dCMP incorporation, complementary to the 3′-end of the S.