[9, 10] In this cascade of events, an interaction between the CD28 molecule and the B7 ligand is necessary as a second signal for optimal T-cell activation and IL-2 production. This ultimately leads to infiltration of the graft by host T cells and damage of the graft. The first question should address what a good biomarker is. The Biomarkers Definitions Working Group defined a biomarker as “a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention”. A perfect diagnostic biomarker for ACR should be highly
sensitive and specific, non-invasive, rapidly available and budget-friendly. The second question should answer if a potential biomarker has proven clinical utility and has been externally validated. Indeed, many potential biomarkers www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD6244.html have been reported to have diagnostic potential, but few have been validated. Validation criteria for ACR are not available, but we were inspired by the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BEZ235.html minimal requirements for the validation of non-invasive fibrosis markers according to the French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé) as adapted by Ratziu.
Based on this, we propose a set of five criteria assessing the intrinsic quality of the biomarker for ACR and the quality of the study report. These criteria are: (i) sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver–operator curve (AUROC); (ii) discrimination from other events, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the liver graft; (iii) easily available high throughput test; (iv) sufficiently large sample size with prospectively analyzed patients; and (v) one independent validation. Rising of liver enzymes after transplantation is often the first reason to suspect ACR. However,
medchemexpress sensitivity and specificity of liver enzymes are low and these enzymes cannot differentiate ACR from others complications. The AUROC for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase, total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin is approximately 0.5. For alkaline phosphatase, the AUROC is slightly better (0.69) and although this value reached statistical significance, the clinical significance remains doubtful. The first potential biomarkers studied were cytokines and other proteins related to the inflammatory response. Growing insight into the immunological basis of ACR accompanied the study of these cytokines as biomarkers for ACR. For example, a rise of CD28 expression up to 6 days before diagnosis of ACR has been observed.[14, 15] A French group studied the expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 on CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, respectively, and found a significantly higher expression of CD28 and CD38 expressing T cells in patients with ACR.