6 times more likely to develop cholestatic/mixed type of DILI. This may not come as a surprise, considering that 83% of the mitochondria hazardous drugs in our cohort also fall into the quinone/epoxide-forming category, reemphasizing the importance of the chemical structure and corresponding reactive intermediates of the drug. Our findings suggest that the SOD2 polymorphism studied is related to cholestatic/mixed type of DILI.
Subsequently, oxidative stress may have a bigger influence on cholestatic/mixed than hepatocellular type of liver injury. Indeed, retention of hydrophobic bile acids is known to enhance mitochondrial oxidative stress.26 The fact that cholestatic patients are generally older than hepatocellular patients supports a role for SOD2 Napabucasin ic50 in cholestatic injury, as the antioxidant defence system is known to decline with age.8, 27 In line with this theory was the finding that our cholestatic/mixed DILI cases homozygous for the SOD2 Ala allele had a higher mean age than the corresponding heterozygous DILI cases. In an earlier study, we found that the presence of either the GSTM1 or GSTT1 null allele was associated with low or no increased risk of developing DILI, respectively, but that carriers of both null alleles had a 2.7-fold increased risk for DILI.17 This suggests that the two GST genes have
a synergistic role in Cetuximab order DILI development. Similarly, the SOD2 and GPX1 polymorphisms synergistically enhance the risk of DILI, irrespective of the type of liver injury as DILI patients were more likely to contain two or more risk alleles (SOD2 Ala and GPX1 Leu allele). Combined sources of oxidative stress are therefore more likely to lead to DILI development, probably because of cumulative mitochondrial dysfunction, and have the potential to overcome the disease threshold faster, as seen in the shorter time to onset in cases with two or more risk alleles. Diplotypes abundant in pro-oxidant alleles are consequently disadvantageous to the cell. The number of pro-oxidant alleles is therefore limited, and none of our cases or controls was found to be homozygous for Tideglusib the SOD2 Ala and GPX1 Leu alleles as well as
GSTM1/T1 double nulls. In conclusion, carriers of the SOD2 Ala/Ala and GPX1 Leu/Leu genotype are more susceptible to developing cholestatic/mixed type of DILI. The risk of DILI is augmented with drugs forming reactive intermediates during bioactivation. The SOD2 Ala and GPX1 Leu risk alleles have a synergistic effect on the risk of DILI, and increased number of risk alleles appear to shorten the time to disease onset. The authors thank D. Ramón Hidalgo of the Servicio Central de Informática de la Universidad de Málaga for his invaluable help in the statistical analyses. The funding source had no involvement in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.