Allergy testing alone cannot confirm this (as the specificity of allergy tests in isolation is low) [6–8] and a detailed clinical history of allergic symptoms consistent with allergen exposure is also required. Challenge testing can be used to confirm specific allergy, but is not often used in routine practice. Many patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis are sensitized to a number of allergens. Evidence does not support the use of mixed allergen preparations, so that only patients with one significant specific allergy (perhaps two) may be considered for immunotherapy
using standardized allergen extract. Patients should also be counselled regarding the expected benefits of treatment for them individually PD0325901 order in light of their click here own symptom severity and triggers. In the United Kingdom, only patients with clinically significant symptoms not controlled adequately with optimal medical therapy are considered for immunotherapy. This means that in practice many patients are treated under close supervision as per British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines , with topical nasal steroids, cromones and antihistamines for a period before enrolment in an immunotherapy programme. This practice is in contrast to that in other countries, where immunotherapy is often used at an earlier stage, and may even be offered in the hope
of modifying disease progression, to prevent the development of new sensitizations and new allergic diseases.
A number of recent studies show evidence of such disease modification, but require confirmation in a larger sample size [10–12]. Investigations. Confirmation of sensitization to the specific allergen is a required, but not sufficient, criterion for initiation of immunotherapy. This may be by skin prick testing or detection of serum-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E. If the patient has mild asthma, verification of adequate control on history and by pulmonary function testing is an important safety consideration. A guide to evaluation, patient GNE-0877 selection and contraindications for allergen-specific immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis is summarized in Table 1. SCIT protocols. SCIT describes the sequential administration of gradually increasing doses of standardized allergen extract up to a maintenance dose, and then continuation of treatment at this dose for a period of time (usually 3 years). Although target maintenance doses are listed for each product by manufacturers, the dose employed is determined by the patient’s clinical tolerance to the vaccine. In other words, a lesser dose is recommended if the patient develops an allergic reaction. Evidence from previous studies has shown that a maintenance dose of 5–20 µg can induce clinical benefit [13–15]. Dosage and regimens.