SOCS1 is predominantly expressed in Th1 cells  where IFN-γ signalling is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of activated STAT1, which is controlled by SOCS1 via a negative feedback mechanism . M. tuberculosis upregulates SOCS1 transcription in murine and human macrophages via the IFN-γ signalling pathway . Patients with active TB have been shown to produce depressed amounts of IFN-γ . Recent studies have identified that selleck IFN-γ inducible gene signature in active TB differs from that of uninfected healthy controls
. Therefore, lowered IFN-γ activation in TB may be attributable to the increased SOCS1 expression observed in T cells of patients with TB. Interferon-gamma-induced macrophage activation results in the increased production of selleck inhibitor IL-1 and TNFα, enhanced MHC Class II presentation and increased production of nitric oxide and reactive-oxygen intermediates . M. tuberculosis infection of cells upregulates the expression of SOCS1 molecules, which in turn interrupt IFN-γ
signalling by binding to the IFN-γ receptor resulting in the inhibition of the downstream JAK/STAT signalling cascade . Gene knockout studies have demonstrated that SOCS1 silencing helps mycobacterial clearance from the host . Of importance, mice with SOCS1 deficiency develop IFN-γ-mediated Th1 immunopathology, indicating that SOCS1 has a role in the regulation of T cell-driven leukocyte activation and cytokine secretion . We found similar levels of GATA-3 and T-bet mRNA in peripheral blood T cells from TB and EC. Therefore, the increased SOCS1 levels observed in T cells of patients were not directly associated with these Th1 and Th2 differentiation factors. We found IL6 levels to be increased in TB as compared with EC. IL6-mediated upregulation of SOCS1 has been shown to inhibit STAT1 phosphorylation, which may have a negative impact on IFN-γ signalling in activated CD4 T cells . Therefore, the increased levels of IL6 in TB may contribute to the raised SOCS1 mRNA expression
observed in this group. Whereas IFN-γ levels were comparable between TB and EC, IL10 levels were found to be increased in TB, corresponding with previous reports . The ratio between IFN-γ and IL10 is essential in determining the Rucaparib outcome of TB infections . Therefore, raised IL10 in the absence of any change in IFN-γ would result in a decreased IFN-γ/IL10 ratio, which would shift the proinflammatory cytokine profile to a Th2-like response in the host. IL10 responses are induced in patients with TB via a TLR-dependent activation and decrease anti-mycobacterial immune responses by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis and production of reactive-oxygen intermediates . We observed that TNFα secretion in PBMCs of TB and EC was similar.