5 for the TDF and entecavir arms, respectively). Hence, the earlier initiation of nucleot(s)ide analogue therapy seems critical for these patients. Another issue is the design of this study of patients with cirrhosis and find more CHB-related acute-on-chronic liver failure: a placebo arm was included. With a lack of facilities for liver transplantation, Garg et al.1 observed a high mortality rate, and most deaths (82%) occurred because of progressive liver failure that led to the development of multiorgan failure.1 With a mortality rate of 4% to 30% 6 to 12 months after lamivudine, telbivudine, and entecavir therapy3-8 and with significant improvements in the long-term survival of patients with hepatic
failure,4 it does not seem appropriate to include a placebo arm in studies enrolling patients with cirrhosis and critical liver failure. In the era of nucleot(s)ide
analogue this website therapy with more potent anti–hepatitis B virus effects, we look forward to the results of more large-scale studies seeking to clarify whether the efficacy can be improved, particularly in patients with cirrhosis, CHB, and acute exacerbation, who have a poorer prognosis. Chia-Yen Dai M.D., Ph.D.* , Ming-Lun Yeh M.D.*, Chung-Feng Huang M.D., M.S.* §, Jee-Fu Huang M.D.* ¶, Ming-Lung Yu M.D., Ph.D.* §, Wan-Long Chuang M.D., Ph.D.* , * Departments of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Departments of Occupational Medicine (Hepatobiliary Division), Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Faculty of Internal Medicine, College of 上海皓元 Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, § Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ¶ Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. ”
“Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) represents the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), with abnormal neuropsychologic findings. Inflammatory response may be important in the pathogenesis of MHE. On magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), improvement
of metabolic ratios after liver transplantation suggests an important role of myoinositol (mI) and choline (cho) in the development of MHE. To investigate arterial ammonia, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, serum endotoxin, and MRS before and after treatment in MHE. Sixty patients of cirrhosis with MHE were randomized to two groups, Gr. MHE-L (n = 30), treated with lactulose for 3 months, and Gr. MHE-NL (n = 30), who did not received lactulose. Arterial ammonia, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, serum endotoxin, and MRS were performed in all patients at baseline and at 3 months and 20 patients of cirrhosis without MHE and 20 healthy controls. After 3 months, median arterial ammonia (69.4 vs 52.7 mcg/dL), TNF-α (26.6 vs 22 pg/mL), IL-6 (17.6 vs 12.