2; 95% CI, 3.7–23).17 Primary
slerosing cholangitis (PSC) seems a particularly important independent risk factor for IBD-CRC. Although patients with PSC often have milder colonic inflammation, a meta-analysis of 11 studies concluded that patients who had both UC and PSC were at increased risk of CRC compared with patients with UC alone (OR 4.09; 95% CI, 2.89–5.76).18 Cancers also often occur earlier in a patient’s disease. selleck compound Potential explanations include that such patients may have had subclinical inflammation for many years prior to colitis diagnosis, a deleterious effect of the altered bile salt pool, or possible shared genetic susceptibility of PSC and CRC. Young age at diagnosis may be a risk factor for IBD-CRC,6 although data are inconsistent and may reflect other dependent factors (such as the potential for longer disease duration and more severe and extensive inflammation in younger age–onset Bioactive Compound Library high throughput patients). Ekbom and colleagues’1 population-based study found age at diagnosis an independent risk factor for CRC. Other studies have not confirmed this association. In Eaden and colleagues’ meta-analysis,10
a nonsignificant negative trend between younger age at onset and increased risk of CRC was seen in adult patients, although in children the cumulative risk of CRC was higher than the corresponding rates for adults. In a British 30-year study, patients who developed CRC had a higher median age of onset of disease than those not developing cancer.11 Another study found a higher CRC risk in patients diagnosed with IBD above 30 to 40 years compared with those diagnosed before the age of 20.19 A further study found that the time between onset of colitis and IBD-CRC was the same in young and old patients.4 Although the lifetime risk and RR may be higher in those who develop colitis at a younger age, the absolute risk of developing CRC is higher in the elderly.20 Several studies have shown that the IBD-CRC risk is greater in men than in women.6 Surveillance
colonoscopy programs aim to reduce CRC mortality (by detecting cancer at an earlier stage with better prognosis) and where possible reduce CRC incidence (by detecting and resecting dysplasia), Dichloromethane dehalogenase while preventing unnecessary surgery. The reduced CRC incidence seen in recent studies may be evidence that surveillance is effective, although there are other potential explanations (described previously). Three retrospective case-control studies have shown a correlation between the use of surveillance colonoscopy and reduced OR for CRC.15, 21 and 22 A Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of surveillance23 was unable to demonstrate a benefit of surveillance programs for preventing CRC-related death in UC. Only 2 studies met their inclusion criteria, which was limited to cohort studies that included a control group.