3E), suggesting a mixed adipogenic population of white and brown adipocytes. Olmsted-Davis et al. reported that brown adipocytes were present in a murine model of HO triggered Selleckchem GSK126 by BMPs, which drive the early steps of heterotopic endochondral ossification by lowering oxygen tension in adjacent tissue . Moreover, recent results have suggested that BMPs also induce neurogenic inflammation, which enhances adrenergic stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) . The SNS is known to induce UCP1-expressing
brown adipocytes, likely through adrenergic stimulation . Further studies are required to gain a better understanding of the effect of SNS stimulation on human muscle resident progenitor cells in HO. We are the first to show that UCP1-positive adipocytes are present in human HO. We are also the first to enrich a subpopulation of CD90− hmrMSCs from adult human skeletal muscle that can give rise to all the lineages present in HO (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic (white
and brown)). The characterization of this progenitor cell subpopulation is essential for understanding muscle regenerative disorders such as HO. In addition, due to their easy accessibility APO866 solubility dmso and reproducibility across donors, CD90− hmrMSCs will be a valuable source of progenitor cells for further studies and future therapies. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Supplemental Fig. 1. Clonal progenies of CD73+CD105+CD90- cells are multipotent in vitro. Study design: JD, DL, MR, NF, AS, FB and GG. Study conduct: JD, DL, PK, MR, RH, FB and GG. Data collection: JD, DL, PK, MR, RH, FB and GG. Data analysis: JD, DL, PK, MR, RVX-208 RH, NF, AS, FB and GG. Data interpretation: JD, DL, PK, MR, RH, NF, AS, FB and GG. Drafting the manuscript: JD, DL, NF, AS, FB and GG. Financial support: PK, KK, MR, RH, NF, FB and GG. Revising the content of the manuscript: JD, DL, PK, KK, MR, RH, NF, AS, FB and GG. Approving the final version of the manuscript: JD, DL, PK, KK, MR, RH, NF, AS, FB and GG. JD, DL, PK, KK, MR, RH, NF, AS, FB and GG take responsibility for the integrity of the data analysis. The authors declare no potential
conflicts of interest. We thank the orthopedic service at CHUS and Dr. Svotelis for their collaboration as well as G. Bourgeau for proofreading our manuscript. JD is the recipient of scholarships from FREOS and PROTEO. GG holds a New Investigator Award from FRQS. This work was supported by grants from CFI, FRQS-ThéCell and CIHR. ”
“Globally, the antiresorptive bisphosphonates have been used extensively for the treatment of osteoporosis. In Japan, for example, alendronate and risedronate are frequently used as strongly recommended pharmacotherapy in the treatment of osteoporosis , and minodronate has also been approved for this indication . Risedronate 2.5 mg once-daily was shown to be effective in preventing vertebral fractures in patients with involutional osteoporosis in Japan .