, 1986). As a result it is used to initiate biological events essential to survival, such as reproduction, migration and dormancy ( Danilevskii, 1965). Egg diapause is a useful phenotype to study photo-induced maternal effects. Maternal effect is environmentally modulated transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (Mousseau and Fox, 1998). Investigating the pre-diapause process in the egg is of particular interest to elucidate the Z-VAD-FMK concentration molecular process of the photo-induced maternal effects, from maternal induction to phenotypic initiation. Egg diapause is currently associated with any condition of suspended hatchability
in temperate species that overwinter as cold hardy eggs. As described in Lepidoptera, egg diapause can be initiated early in the embryogenesis phase in the late gastrula stage as in the silkworm Bombyx mori, or at the end of the embryogenesis in the pharate larva stage, with a fully-developed GSK J4 concentration larva still contained and compacted in the egg, as in Lymantria dispar and Antheraea yamamai ( Denlinger and Armbruster, 2014). The Asian tiger mosquito has only one clearly defined stage of diapause, the pharate larva ( Vinogradova, 2007). The changes in the eggs occurs during diapause preparation, before the initiation sensu stricto ( Koštál, 2006), resulting in phenotypes with
differences in morphology, development time and physiology. The developmental period preceding the stage of diapause initiation is frequently prolonged in insects ( Denlinger, 2002 and Harrat and Petit, 2009). This increased duration is linked to changes in metabolism, including protein synthesis and additional lipid storage ( Denlinger, 2002). In addition
to diapause effects, photoperiod generates direct impacts on mosquito development and life history traits. For example, some larvae of Aedes and Culiseta species cannot reach maturity in the until absence of light exposure ( Clements, 1963), and the development time of A. albopictus larvae from the US is affected by the rearing photoperiod ( Yee et al., 2012). Nevertheless it can be difficult to discriminate between effects of the mechanisms of a photoperiod-induced diapause and direct effects of photoperiod on organisms. It is the case for Aedes mariae, where diapause-programmed females preferentially seek sheltered holes in rock pools, providing them an appropriate hibernaculum against winter events like storms ( Coluzzi et al., 1975). We can use tropical and temperate populations of A. albopictus to study this type of phenomenon in mosquitoes. Tropical strains are unable to perform diapause, contrary to temperate and subtropical strains which perform photo-induced diapause ( Pumpuni, 1989). This fundamental difference between strains occurs naturally, contrary to other biological models of insects where strains must be artificially selected ( Lee et al., 1997).