, 2009). Systemic candidiasis is usually initiated when immunity is physically or chemotherapeutically impaired, and well-recognized risk factors for human systemic disease include catheterization, surgery and chemotherapy. Walker and colleagues studied the C. albicans transcriptome during
rabbit renal infection (Walker et al., 2009), using an intravenous, ear vein infection (Fig. 2g) and a single 3-day time point. Fungal lesions (Fig. 1h and FDA-approved Drug Library supplier i) were harvested from the kidney with a scalpel and snap frozen before pooling, fixation and total RNA extraction. The large numbers of fungal cells obtained from these samples negated the requirement for mRNA amplification and the tissue fixation protocol was found to impact transcription minimally. The reference RNA sample was prepared from RPMI-cultured C. albicans cells (obtained from prior overnight culture in a rich medium and shifted for 6 h). Thewes and colleagues also studied systemic C. albicans infection, but in an immunocompetent murine host, analysing different phases of intraperitoneally administered infection, from liver attachment to penetration of liver surface-tissue, in time-course experimentation (Fig. 1j–l). In this instance, a YPD-grown comparator cell population
was used for harvesting reference RNA (Thewes et al., 2007). RNA from infecting fungi was amplified before find more microarray hybridizations. We selected two plant infection datasets. Kamper and colleagues analysed stem-injection-mediated infections of maize by the biotrophic plant pathogen U. maydis, initiating from a dikaryotic invasive filament and proceeding via appressorium formation and tissue penetration (Fig. 2a and b) through to tumour formation (Fig. 2c). During hyphal penetration, the host plasma membrane invaginates to form an interaction zone between the pathogen and the host
(Fig. 2b). Tumour formation results from pathogen-induced plant growth alterations, with the fungus proliferating and differentiating within the tumour Methamphetamine tissue. Kamper isolated total RNA from plant tumours at 13 days postinfection, providing sufficient RNA without amplication. The reference sample was cultured from one of the two infecting progenitors in minimal medium. In the second plant infection study, Mosquera and colleagues studied the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a plant pathogen that threatens several agriculturally important food crops, predominantly rice (Wilson & Talbot, 2009). Magnaporthe oryzae undergoes a series of morphogenetic transitions during the infection process. Following initial cutinase-mediated spore attachment to the rice leaf sheath, a narrow germ tube is generated (Fig. 2d) that differentiates into a penetrating appressorium (Fig. 2e), used by the fungus to gain entry into the leaf epidermis.