, 2002) (Fig. 1). OlsB-deficient mutants have been isolated
in S. meliloti, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Brucella abortus, and Burkholderia cenocepacia, and they are in all cases unable to form OLs (Gao et al., 2004; Aygun-Sunar et al., 2006; González-Silva et al., 2011; Palacios-Chaves et al., 2011). The analysis of molecular species of OLs present in different organisms suggests that the distinct OlsB proteins apparently present strong substrate specificity for specific fatty acid chain lengths. Apparently, OlsB enzymes from Rhizobium tropici and S. meliloti almost exclusively attach a 3-hydroxylated C18 fatty selleckchem acid to ornithine (Geiger et al., 1999; Vences-Guzmán et al., 2011), whereas PS-341 ic50 OlsB from B. cenocepacia almost exclusively transfers a 3-hydroxylated C16 fatty acid (González-Silva et al., 2011). In contrast, OLs from Pseudomonas aeruginosa present a variety of chain lengths in the amide-linked fatty acid (Lewenza et al., 2011), indicating that OlsB from P. aeruginosa shows laxer substrate specificity and can transfer a variety of 3-hydroxy fatty acids to ornithine. OlsA-deficient mutants of S. meliloti, R. capsulatus, B. abortus, and P. aeruginosa are unable to form OLs
(Weissenmayer et al., 2002; Aygun-Sunar et al., 2006; Lewenza et al., 2011; Palacios-Chaves et al., 2011). In some cases, an accumulation of LOL has been observed in OlsA-deficient mutants that can be exacerbated by OlsB overexpression (Gao et al., 2004). In contrast to what has been observed for OlsB, OlsA seems to be less selective for specific fatty acids. More details relating to OlsA and OlsB can only be found in Geiger et al. (2010). Once the unmodified OL S1 has been synthesized by the acyltransferases
OlsB and OlsA, it can be modified in some organisms by introducing hydroxyl groups in the different moieties of the OL structure or by transfer of taurine to the α-carboxy group of ornithine (Tahara et al., 1978). So far, three different OL hydroxylases have been described: OlsC, OlsD, and OlsE (Rojas-Jiménez et al., 2005; González-Silva et al., 2011; Vences-Guzmán et al., 2011) (Fig. 2). The gene/enzyme responsible for the taurine modification of OLs in G. cerinus has not been identified. Mutants lacking OlsB activity and thereby deficient in the first step of OL biosynthesis have been shown to lack modified OLs also, indicating that there is no alternative to the OlsBA pathway in the organisms studied so far. In some species of the genus Burkholderia (González-Silva et al., 2011), Flavobacterium (Kawai et al., 1988; Asselineau, 1991), Thiobacillus (Knoche & Shively, 1972), Gluconobacter (Tahara et al., 1976a, 1976b), Streptomyces (Asselineau, 1991), Ralstonia (Galbraith et al., 1999), and Rhizobium (Vences-Guzmán et al., 2011), OLs hydroxylated in C-2 position of the ester-linked fatty acid have been described.