, 1991); however, algA, like other related alg genes, may also be involved in the biosynthesis 3-MA manufacturer of lipopolysaccharide, as shown elsewhere (Goldberg et al., 1993; Gaona et al., 2004). As direct experimental evidence is still missing as regards alginate production by Alcanivorax, our findings may point more to the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide, rather than of alginate. While the biosynthesis of alginate has not yet been shown for Alcanivorax, it has been described for marine algae and bacteria belonging to the
genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter (Gorin & Spencer, 1966; Lin & Hassid, 1966; Evans & Linker, 1973). With respect
to the expression of genes thought to be involved in the signalling and regulatory processes essential for the formation of biofilm, our transcriptomic data show that the widely suggested mechanism of biofilm formation mediated by elevated concentrations of messenger c-di-GMP does not seem to be clearly effective in the case of Alcanivorax growing on alkanes. One regulatory system (encoded by ABO_2433), containing the known GGDEF and EAL domains, responsible for the biosynthesis and
hydrolysis of c-di-GMP, respectively, was found to be downregulated, while another gene, ABO_2132 encoding the HD-GYP domain Ponatinib cell line with phosphodiesterase activity responsible for hydrolysis of c-di-GMP (Galperin et al., 1999; Ryan et al., 2006), was found to be upregulated. Hence, the precise role of intracellular Pembrolizumab price c-di-GMP levels for biofilm formation may be more complex than previously assumed (Hickman et al., 2005; Römling et al., 2005). We furthermore found that a whole set of genes involved in the formation of pili (ABO_0463, ABO_0467, ABO_0613, ABO_00614, and ABO_2670, Table 1) is downregulated during growth on alkanes; hence, attachment of Alcanivorax to alkane droplets does seem to require quorum sensing, and leads to enhanced biosynthesis of EPS, and yet, it may not be classical biofilms that are formed to access alkane droplets, triggered by intracellular c-di-GMP and by the formation of pili and/or fimbriae, but rather irregular aggregates glued together by extracellular polysaccharides. Our expression data also shed some new light on the acknowledged uncertainty as to how alkanes are transported into the bacterial cell.