In this system, the Fas/Fas ligand pathway may also participate in vascular leakage by promoting apoptosis BMN 673 ic50 of endothelial cells. Furthermore, iNKT cells express chemokines receptors such as CCR2 and CCR4, that were earlier mentioned in the present review to play important roles in disease progression during experimental DENV-2 infection.[93, 109] We aim to investigate further the potential role of iNKT cells during acute DENV infection in the human system, which would include the activation status of iNKT cells in patients infected with DENV in endemic areas. A better understanding of the in vivo iNKT cell activation, the chemokines involved in their recruitment to target organs
and their precise functions in DENV infection may pave the way to development of novel therapeutic approaches such as targeting the development and expansion of the iNKT population. Th17 cells are induced upon TCR activation in the presence of cytokines that activate STAT3, including IL-6,
IL-21 and IL-23. They are an important subset of lymphocytes involved in the immune response to extracellular pathogens including bacteria and virus, and participate actively in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.[110-112] Th17 polarization is characterized by the expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 and its ligand CCL20, and check details by production of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22.[111, 112] Some research groups also identified the Th22 subset, which is a human T helper subset described by Trifari et al. in 2009, that is characterized by the production of IL-22 and TNF-α, but not IL-17 or IFN-γ.[110, 113, 114]
Interleukin-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family and has been described as playing key roles in inflammation and tissue homeostasis.[115, 116] The IL-22 receptor complex (IL-22R) is expressed in non-haematopoietic science cells in the skin, kidney, liver, lungs and gut, which allows an important IL-22-mediated regulation of local tissue responses during infection and/or inflammation.[111, 117] The IL-22 is produced not only by Th17 or Th22 cells but also by NK cells, NKT cells, γδT cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer-like cells.[114, 118, 119] Both IL-17 and IL-22 can induce an innate immune response in epithelial cells, but their functional properties are distinct. Whereas IL-17 induces an inflammatory tissue response, IL-22 is believed to be mainly protective and/or regenerative.[114-116, 118] In human and experimental viral infections, IL-22 seems to a play a protective role in primary respiratory infection by influenza A virus, not contributing to viral clearance, whereas the IL-17 pathway contributes to acute lung injury caused by the flu.[120, 121] Interleukin-22 also appears to be an important mediator of the inflammatory response following recognition of hepatitis B virus by T cells in the liver. Importantly, the role of the IL-22 and IL-17 pathway in infections caused by flaviviruses is poorly known.