The γδ T-cell field has been hampered
by a lack of consensus with regard to nomenclature for the various γ chains. Of the two systems in common use, that of Garman  and that of Heilig and Tonegawa , we have used the latter throughout this review. While γδ T cells appear KU57788 to be primarily activated via their TCR, engagement of the TCR is not essential for their activation. γδ T cells have been shown to play an important role in the early immune response to a range of infectious agents, including fungi, bacteria, viruses and parasites . This may explain their abundance at mucosal sites, as well as their ability to be rapidly activated following exposure to pathogens or inflammatory cytokines, produced by macrophages Erlotinib chemical structure or dendritic cells (DCs) in responses to PAMPs. γδ T cells can function in the resolution of infection in a number of ways, including acting as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and promoting recruitment of effector cells to the site of infection. γδ T cells were shown to facilitate bacterial clearance via neutrophil, macrophage, and NK-cell recruitment, as well as contributing to
IFN-γ production at the site of infection [15-17]. Similarly, IL-17 had been shown to play a pivotal role in the resolution of bacterial pathogens, especially early in infection. IL-17 has been shown to increase chemokine expression and rapidly induce neutrophil recruitment following Klebsiella pneumonia infection in the lung, and is required for the control of Salmonella enterica enteritidis infection of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract[18, 19]. A study by Lockhart et al. demonstrated that γδ T cells in the lung produce IL-17 following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and provided the first crucial evidence linking γδ T-cell activation, neutrophil recruitment, and resolution of infection . Indeed this study Abiraterone demonstrated that despite the relatively low percentage of γδ
T cells within the lymphocyte compartment (<5% total lymphocytes), these cells are a more potent source of IL-17 as compared with activated CD4+ T cells, which had previously been identified as the main producers of IL-17. IL-17-producing γδ T cells are also increased in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis . Further studies using a variety of bacterial models have described crucial roles for IL-17-secreting γδ T cells in the resolution of bacterial infection, including Staphylococcus aureus infection of the skin , S. enterica infection in the lung , Listeria moncytogenes infection in the liver , and intraperitoneal infection with Escherichia coli . The Vδ1 subset of γδ T cells has been shown to be a major source of IL-17 following E. coli infection while human Vδ2+ IL-17+ γδ T cells have been found in the peripheral blood of children with bacterial meningitis . IL-17-secreting γδ T cells have also been described in viral infections .