“Frontal and basal ganglia infarcts and executive dysfunction are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of poststroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), The study examined whether patients with PSEI have more frontal and/or basal ganglia infarcts and impairment in executive function. A total of 5 16 Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the acute stroke unit of a university-affiliated regional hospital in Hong Kong were screened for PSEI 3 months after the index stroke. According to Kim’s
criteria, 39 (7.6%) had PSEI. Thirty-nine stroke patients without PSEI served as matched Ilomastat mw control group. The PSEI group had significantly more frontal and/or basal ganglia infarcts, had lower Chinese Frontal Assessment Battery scores, required more time to complete the Stroop Test, and made more omission and commission errors in the Go-NoGo test. There was no significant correlation between frontal or basal ganglia infarcts and executive function. The correlation between frontal infarct and severity of PSEI was .420. Further follow-up and functional imaging studies are warranted to explore
the relationship between PSEI brain infarcts, and executive dysfunction. (JINS, 2009, 15, 62-68.)”
“Environmental conditions and individual strategies in early life DMXAA mouse may have a profound effect on fitness. A critical moment in the life of an organism occurs when an individual reaches independence and stops receiving benefits from its relatives. Understanding the consequences of individual strategies
at the time of independence requires quantification of their fitness effects. We explored this period in the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). In this system, testosterone and parasite (Trichostrongylus tenuis) levels are known to influence survival and reproduction, the two key components of individual fitness. We experimentally and simultaneously manipulated testosterone and parasites this website at three levels (high, intermediate, and control levels for both factors) in 195 young males in five populations using a factorial experimental design. We explored the effects of our treatments on fitness by monitoring reproduction and survival throughout the life of all males and estimating lambda(ind), a rate-sensitive index of fitness. Parasite challenges increased the number of worms with a time lag, as previously found. However, we did not find significant effects of parasite manipulations on fitness, possibly because parasite abundance did not increase to harmful levels. Our hormone manipulation was successful at increasing testosterone at three different levels. Such increases in hormone levels decreased overall fitness.
But, Fecenia silk lacks the high compliance and extensibility found in true orb spiders, likely due in part to the absence of MaSp2. Our results suggest how constraints limit convergent evolution and provide insight into the evolution of nature’s toughest fibers.”
“The global pharmaceutical
industry is estimated to use close to 20 million animals annually, in in vivo studies which apply the results of fundamental biomedical research to the discovery and development of novel pharmaceuticals, Staurosporine ic50 or to the application of existing pharmaceuticals to novel therapeutic indications. These applications of in vivo experimentation include: a) the use of animals as disease models against which the efficacy of therapeutics can be tested; b) the study of the
toxicity of those therapeutics, before they are administered to humans for the first time; and c) the study of their pharmacokinetics i.e. their distribution throughout, and elimination from, the body. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies are estimated to use several hundred thousand animals annually. The success of pharmaceutical research currently relies heavily on the ability to extrapolate from data obtained in such in vivo studies to predict therapeutic behaviour in humans. Physiologically-based modelling ERK pathway inhibitors has the potential to reduce the number of in vivo animal studies that are performed by the pharmaceutical industry. In particular, the technique of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPR:) modelling is sufficiently developed to serve as a replacement for many in vivo PK studies in animals during drug discovery. Extension of GSK2126458 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor the technique to incorporate
the prediction of in vivo therapeutic effects and/or toxicity is less well-developed, but has potential in the longer-term to effect a significant reduction in animal use, and also to lead to improvements in drug discovery via the increased rationalisation of lead optimisation.”
“In the Low Arctic, a warming climate is increasing rates of permafrost degradation and altering vegetation. Disturbance associated with warming permafrost can change microclimate and expose areas of ion-rich mineral substrate for colonization by plants. Consequently, the response of vegetation to warming air temperatures may differ significantly from disturbed to undisturbed tundra. Across a latitudinal air temperature gradient, we tested the hypothesis that the microenvironment in thaw slumps would be warmer and more nutrient rich than undisturbed tundra, resulting in altered plant community composition and increased green alder (Alnus viridis subsp. fruticosa) growth and reproduction. Our results show increased nutrient availability, soil pH, snow pack, ground temperatures, and active layer thickness in disturbed terrain and suggest that these variables are important drivers of plant community structure. We also found increased productivity, catkin production, and seed viability of green alder at disturbed sites.
Staff agreed MK-8776 in vitro education and ‘extra hands’ would address most barriers but did not consider organisational change.\n\nConclusions:\n\nRedesigning the model of care to reprioritise meal-time activities and redefine multidisciplinary roles and responsibilities would support coordinated nutrition care. However, effectiveness may also depend on hospital-wide leadership and support to empower staff and increase accountability within
a team-led approach.”
“Chemical dimerizers are powerful non-invasive tools for bringing molecules together inside intact cells. We recently introduced a rapidly reversible chemical dimerizer system which enables transient translocation of enzymes to and from the plasma membrane (PM). Here we have applied this system to transiently activate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) breakdown at the PM via translocation of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase (5Ptase). We
found that the PIP2 sensor phospholipase C-delta PH domain (PLC delta-PH) is released from the PM upon addition of the reversible chemical dimerizer rCD1. By selleck inhibitor outcompeting rCD1, rapid release of the 5Ptase from the PM is followed by PIP2 recovery. This permits the observation of the PIP2-dependent clathrin assembly at the PM. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Envenomation by Loxosceles species (brown spider) can lead to local dermonecrosis and to serious systemic effects. The main toxic component in the venom of these spiders is sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) and various isoforms of this toxin are present in Loxosceles venoms. We have produced a new anti-loxoscelic serum by immunizing horses with recombinant SMase D. In the present study, we compared the neutralization selleckchem efficacy of the new anti-loxoscelic serum and anti-arachnidic serum (the latter serum is used for therapy for loxoscelism in Brazil) against the toxic effects of venoms from spiders
of the genus Loxosceles. Neutralization tests showed that anti-SMase D serum has a higher activity against toxic effects of L. intermedia and L. laeta venoms and similar or slightly weaker activity against toxic effects of L. gaucho than that of Arachnidic serum. These results demonstrate that recombinant SMase D can replace venom for anti-venom production and therapy.”
“The objective of this study was to examine the effects of FSH and LH on oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone production by buffalo granulosa cells cultured under serum-free conditions. Granulosa cells (3 x 10(5)) from small (<= 5 mm diameter) follicles were cultured for up to 4 days in 48-well plates coated with 3.3 mu g/cm(2) fibronectin in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) : nutrient mixture F-12 Ham (1: 1 ratio) supplemented with 10(-7) M androstenedione, 5 mu g/ml human apotransferrin and 0.1% bovine serum albumin, in the presence or absence of FSH or LH (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 ng/ml each).
Regional grey matter volumes were measured using antemortem MRI. NFT density was significantly higher in left temporoparietal cortices in IvPPA compared to DAT, with no differences observed in hippocampus. There was a trend for the ratio of temporoparietal-to-hippocampal NFT density to be higher in IvPPA. The imaging findings mirrored the pathological findings, with smaller left temporoparietal volumes observed in IvPPA compared to DAT, and no differences observed in hippocampal volume. This study demonstrates that IvPPA is AL3818 associated with a phenomenon of enhanced temporoparietal neurodegeneration,
a finding that improves our understanding of the biological basis of IvPPA. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a mitogen-activated protein 3 (MAP3) kinase, plays an essential role in inflammation by activating the I kappa B kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) and stress kinase (p38 and
c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]) pathways in response to many stimuli. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL) regulates osteoclastogenesis through its receptor, RANK, and the signaling adaptor TRAF6. Because TAK1 activation is mediated GW786034 price through TRAF6 in the interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways, we sought to investigate the consequence of TAK1 deletion in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. We generated macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived monocytes from the bone marrow of mice with TAK1 deletion in the myeloid lineage. Unexpectedly, TAK1-deficient monocytes in culture died rapidly but could be rescued by retroviral expression of TAK1, inhibition of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase activity with necrostatin-1, or simultaneous genetic deletion of TNF receptor
1 (TNFR1). Further investigation using TAK1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed that TNF-alpha-induced cell death was abrogated by the simultaneous inhibition of caspases and knockdown of RIP3, suggesting that TAK1 is an important modulator of both apoptosis and necroptosis. Moreover, TAK1-deficient monocytes rescued from programmed find more cell death did not form mature osteoclasts in response to RANKL, indicating that TAK1 is indispensable to RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. To our knowledge, we are the first to report that mice in which TAK1 has been conditionally deleted in osteoclasts develop osteopetrosis.”
“We previously isolated and reported a second species of the Saccharophagus genus, Saccharophagus sp. strain Myt-1. In the present study, a cellulase gene (celMytB) from the genomic DNA of Myt-1 was cloned and characterized. The DNA sequence fragment contained an open reading frame of 1,893 bp that encoded a protein of 631 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 66.8 kDa.
\n\nResults: Of 1180 eligible
women, 1087 were approached and 1044 (88%) consented to participate. Among the 987 women for whom a questionnaire and a definitive diagnostic assay were available, the prevalence of chlamydia was 3.2% (95% Cl 1.8 to 5.9). In a multiple logistic regression model, more than one sexual partner in the past year (AOR 11.5; 95% Cl 7.1 to 18.5) was associated with chlamydia infection. The use of any antibiotic within 3 months (AOR 0.2; 95% Cl 0.1 to 0.6) was associated with a decreased risk of infection. Screening restricted to women who reported more than one sexual partner in the past year would have detected 44% of infections in women aged 16-25 years and would have required only 7% of women to be screened. The addition of those women aged 20 years and under would have required 27% of women to be screened and detection of 72% selleck chemical of infections.\n\nConclusions: Selective chlamydia screening of pregnant women based on risk factors can improve the yield from screening. However, the potential harm of missed infections among excluded women would need to be considered.”
“Background: Vascular calcifications ( VCs) contribute
to the massive mortality in hemodialysis ( HD) patients. We aimed to identify prevalence and risk factors for arterial medial calcifications ( AMCs) versus intimal calcifications ( AICs) in a single-center HD population.\n\nMethods: This cross-sectional study included 134 patients, mean age 56.9 +/- 9.7 years, on HD for 8.2 +/- 5.0 years.
VCs were scored based on plain radiographs and ultrasonography of the common carotid Selleckchem PF-04929113 arteries.\n\nResults: Patients were categorized into groups I ( 13% without VC), II ( 10% with an AMC pattern), III ( 24% with an AIC pattern) and IV ( 53% with a mixed pattern). AIC and mixed patterns were associated with older age ( p=0.006 and p=0.004, respectively), and mixed pattern with longer dialysis vintage ( p=0.001). Pulse pressure was significantly higher in patients from group III than group IV, and intima-media thickness ( IMT) was higher in both groups with AIC. By multivariate analysis, risk factors for any VC were high serum Ca, phosphate, Ca x P product, low total protein, high body mass index ( BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, IMT and history of smoking. Elevated selleck kinase inhibitor calcium and/or phosphate predicted an AMC pattern, and high calcium, BMI and IMT an AIC pattern. Finally, high IMT, systolic blood pressure, BMI and older age were predictors of a mixed pattern.\n\nConclusion: We observed a very high prevalence of VC, mostly with a mixed AIC+AMC pattern. Apart from well-known risk factors, the data stress the importance of smoking, an under-recognized cause of AMC, and systolic blood pressure for AIC+AMC.”
“Female gender is an established risk factor for worse outcomes after cardiac surgery.
“A total of 1,870 nonduplicate clinical Enterobacteriaceae from 13 teaching hospitals located in 11 provinces of mainland China from 2011 to 2012 were screened for the presence of the bla(NDM) gene. The high-throughput Cilengitide nmr MiSeq sequencing method and comparative genomics were used to analyze the genetic environment of bla(NDM) among these isolates. Three bla(NDM-1)-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.16%, 3/1,870), isolated from a teaching hospital in Xi’an, exhibited high levels of resistance to all -lactams, but remained susceptible to amikacin, tigecycline, and polymyxin B. These three isolates, belonging to ST147,
presented an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. The IncX3 plasmid, pNDM-SX04 (KC876051) showed 99% identity with plasmid pNDM-HN380 (JX104760). Comparative analysis of the genetic environment of bla(NDM-1) with previously published plasmids revealed the same 7,830-bp basic mobile element, which may have been derived from Acinetobacter spp. Partial ISAba125, ISAba125 promoter, bla(NDM-1), and ble(MBL) could serve as the minimal mobile vehicle facilitating horizontal
transfer of the bla(NDM-1) gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of bla(NDM-1)-carrying ST147 K. pneumoniae. Although the prevalence spread by the bla(NDM-1) gene prevalence is at a low frequency in mainland China, a dynamic national surveillance of this gene is needed due to its potential transferability.”
“This review briefly addresses what has Screening Library in vitro been
learned BIX 01294 about resistance durability in recent years, as well as the questions that still remain. Molecular analyses of major gene interactions have potential to contribute to both breeding for resistance and improved understanding of virulence impacts on pathogen fitness. Though the molecular basis of quantitative resistance is less clear, substantial evidence has accumulated for the relative simplicity of inheritance. There is increasing evidence for specific interactions with quantitative resistance, though implications of this for durability are still unknown. Mechanisms by which resistance gene pyramids contribute to durability remain elusive, though ideas have been generated for identifying gene combinations that may be more durable. Though cultivar mixtures and related approaches have been used successfully, identifying the diseases and conditions that are most conducive to the use of diversity has been surprisingly difficult, and the selective influence of diversity on pathogen populations is complex. The importance of considering resistance durability in a landscape context has received increasing emphasis and is an important future area of research. Experimental systems are being developed to test resistance gene deployment strategies that previously could be addressed only with logic and observation.
Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, every one-point decline in global cognitive function (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57 [1.21-2.03]), MMSE (OR: 1.07 [1.03-1.10]), Episodic Memory (OR: 1.46 [1.14-1.86]), and Perceptual Speed (OR: 1.05 [1.02-1.07]) scores were associated with increased risk for EM. Lowest tertiles in global cognitive function (OR: 2.71 [1.49-4.88]), MMSE (OR: 2.02 [1.07-3.80]), Episodic Memory (OR: 2.70 [1.41-5.16]), and
Perceptual Speed (OR: 4.41 [2.22-8.76]) scores were associated with increased risk for EM. Conclusion: Decline in global cognitive function, MMSE, and Perceptual Speed scores were associated with increased risk for EM.”
“The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, has numerous functions that prevent mitotic crossovers. DMH1 purchase We used unique features of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate origins and properties of mitotic crossovers that occur when BLM is absent. Induction of lesions Alvespimycin that block replication forks increased crossover frequencies, consistent with functions for BLM in responding to fork blockage. In contrast, treatment with hydroxyurea, which stalls forks, did not elevate crossovers, even though mutants lacking BLM are sensitive to killing by this agent. To learn about sources of spontaneous recombination, we mapped mitotic crossovers in mutants lacking BLM. In the male germline, irradiation-induced crossovers were distributed
randomly across the euchromatin, but spontaneous crossovers were nonrandom. We suggest that regions of the genome with a high frequency of mitotic crossovers may be analogous to common fragile sites in the human genome. Interestingly, in the male germline there is a paucity of crossovers in the interval that spans the pericentric heterochromatin, but in the female germline
this interval is more prone to crossing over. Finally, our system allowed us to recover pairs of reciprocal crossover chromosomes. Sequencing of these revealed the existence learn more of gene conversion tracts and did not provide any evidence for mutations associated with crossovers. These findings provide important new insights into sources and structures of mitotic crossovers and functions of BLM helicase.”
“A rapid and sensitive LC method was developed and validated for the determination of diastereomeric purity of tenofovir alafenamide (GS-7340). Baseline separation with resolution bigger than 2.8 was achieved within 17 min on a CHIRALPAK AD-3 (250 x 4.6 mm; particle size 3 mu m) column using n-hexane:2-propanol (60:40 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). The analytes were detected by UV absorbance at 260 nm. The effects of ethanol, 2-propanol, and temperature on diastereomeric selectivity and resolution of diastereomerism were evaluated. The method was extensively validated and proved to be robust. The recoveries were between 98.17 and 102.84 % with smaller than 1.93 % relative standard deviation. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for GS-7339 were 0.77 and 2.
Twelve urine samples from these 30 mother baby Selleck AS1842856 pairs were randomly selected for arsenic speciation. Results: Arsenic concentration in human milk was low and non-normally distributed. The median arsenic concentration in human milk at all three time points remained at 0.5 mu g/L. In the mixed model estimates, arsenic concentration in human milk was non-significantly reduced by -0.035 mu g/L (95% CI: -0.09 to 0.02) between 1 and 6 months and between 6 and 9 months. With the progression of time, arsenic concentration in infant’s urine increased non-significantly
by 0.13 mu g/L (95% CI: -1.27 to 1.53). Arsenic in human milk at 1 and 6 months was not correlated with arsenic in the infant’s urine at the same time points (r = -0.13 at 1 month and r = -0.09 at 6 month). Arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA), dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB) were the constituents of total urinary arsenic; DMA was the predominant arsenic metabolite in infant urine. Conclusions: We observed a low arsenic concentration in human milk. The concentration was lower than the World Health Organization’s maximum permissible limit (WHO Permissible Limit 15 mu g/kg-bw/week). Our findings support the safety of breastfeeding even in arsenic contaminated areas.”
“PURPOSE. We determined the prevalence of disc hemorrhage (DH) and the associated factors of DH in a large
Korean population based on the data from the nationwide HDAC assay cross-sectional survey, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS. We performed a retrospective
review of the KNHANES dataset covering January 2012 to December 2012. A total of 5612 subjects aged 19 years and older had completed health interviews, physical examinations, and ophthalmologic assessment, including comprehensive glaucoma evaluation. Two masked graders evaluated see more the fundus photography to detect DH. The prevalence of DH in each subject was defined as the presence of DH in at least one eye. RESULTS. The estimated prevalence of DH in the Korean population aged 19 years and older was 0.42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.67), which increased with age, 1.04-fold in 1 year and 1.54-fold in 10 years, according to Poisson regression analysis. The estimated prevalences of DH were 0.54% in subjects aged 30 years and older, 0.67% in those aged 40 years and older, and 0.71% in those aged 50 years and older. Glaucoma was diagnosed in 4.18% (95% CI, 3.58-4.88) of cases, and the prevalence of DH in glaucomatous subjects was 2.82% (95% CI, 1.53-5.14). In a multivariate analysis, the occurrence of DH was significantly associated with age (P smaller than 0.001) and the presence of glaucoma (P smaller than 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. The prevalences of DH among Koreans are similar to the figures reported by previous population-based studies for the same age ranges. Associated factors were age and glaucoma.
We study the dynamical properties of the system such as, atomic population inversion, the probability distribution of cavity-field, the Mandel parameter and atomic dipole squeezing. It is shown how the depth of the Morse potential can be affected by non-classical properties
of the system. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the Husimi-distribution function is explored.”
“A simple, sensitive and specific ultra-performance liquid IPI-145 manufacturer chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the newly synthesized compound lipoic acid-niacin dimer (N2L) in plasma. Plasma samples were precipitated by methanol using tetrahydropalmatine as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C-18 (2.1x50mm i.d., 1.7 mu m) column; the mobile phase contains methanol and buffer solution (water with 0.5% formic acid and 10mmol/L ammonium acetate). Multiple reaction monitoring selleck screening library (m/z 353.9148.6 for N2L and m/z 356.0192.0
for internal standard) was performed for detection and quantification. The method was validated to be rapid, specific, accurate and precise over the concentration range of 1-750ng/mL; N2L was not stable on the bench-top or during freeze-freeze-thaw cycles in plasma, but was stable in the stock solution and after preparation in the autosampler for 24h. The utility of the assay was confirmed by pharmacokinetic study of N2L in rats. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Metabolic changes in cells that participate in inflammation, such as activated macrophages and T-helper 17 cells, include a shift towards enhanced glucose uptake, glycolysis and increased activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Opposing roles in these changes for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and AMP-activated protein kinase have been proposed. By contrast, anti-inflammatory cells, such as M2 macrophages, regulatory T cells and quiescent
memory T cells, have lower glycolytic rates and higher levels of oxidative metabolism. Some anti-inflammatory agents might act by inducing, through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, a state akin to pseudo-starvation. Altered ARN-509 supplier metabolism may thus participate in the signal-directed programs that promote or inhibit inflammation.”
“Dengue is a serious disease which has become a global health burden in the last decade. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or antiviral therapies to combat the disease. The increasing spread and severity of the dengue virus infection emphasizes the importance of drug discovery strategies that could efficiently and cost-effectively identify antiviral drug leads for development into potent drugs. To this effect, several computational approaches were applied in this work. Initially molecular docking studies of reference ligands to the DEN2 NS2B/NS3 serine protease were carried out.
A total of 12 functional guilds were observed
in the samples. The cp-1 functional guilds were dominant in the greenhouse, whereas cp-3 functional guilds were dominant in the farmland. The soil nematode populations, trophic groups, ACY-241 Epigenetics inhibitor and functional guilds reflected the differences between the greenhouse and the farmland land use systems. Although soil fertility parameters, except available P, in the greenhouse were higher (p smaller than 0.001), the biodiversity was lower than in the farmland (p smaller than 0.05). Nematode ecological indices, such as the Shannon index, modified maturity index, and enrichment index were sensitive for differentiating between the greenhouse and farmland ecosystems.”
“Re-excision rates after breast conserving surgery (BCS) of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are high.
Preoperative breast MRI has the potential to reduce re-excision rates, but may lead to an increased rate of mastectomies. Hence, we assessed the influence of preoperative breast MRI on the re-excision rate and the rate of mastectomies. We performed a retrospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients with ILC who presented in one of two dedicated tertiary cancer centers between 1993 and 2005. We assessed the initial type of surgery (BCS or mastectomy), the re-excision rate and the final type of surgery. Patients were stratified into two groups: those who received preoperative MRI (MR+ group) and those who did not (MR- group). In the MR- group, 27% of the patients underwent a re-excision after initial BCS. In the MR+ group, this rate was significantly PP2 lower at 9%. The odds ratio was 3.64 (95% CI: 1.30-10.20, P = 0.010). There was a trend towards a lower final mastectomy rate in the MR+ group compared to the MR- group (48 vs. 59%, P = 0.098). In conclusion, preoperative MRI in patients with buy AZD1152 ILC can reduce re-excision rates without increasing the rate of mastectomies.”
“We evaluated the effects of 2 commonly available strategies (plant stanol ester drink and 10 mg simvastatin) on coronary heart disease (CHID) risk variables in participants
with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk to develop CHD, partly due to high triacylglycerol (TAG) and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and a low-grade inflammatory profile. Effects of plant stanol esters on TAG concentrations in these participants are unknown. After a 3-wk run-in period in which individuals consumed placebo yogurt drinks and placebo capsules, participants were randomly divided into 4 groups: placebo (n = 9), simvastatin + placebo drink (n = 10), placebo + stanol drink (n = 9), and simvastatin + stanol drink (n = 8). After 9 wk, we evaluated the effects on serum lipids, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction markers. In metabolic syndrome patients, stanol esters (2.