g., K19, CD133, EpCAM, and c-kit) in HCCs and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic characteristics. In addition, the biological features of human HCCs expressing stemness-related markers were analyzed with various EMT and invasion-associated proteins. AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CD, cluster of differentiation;
cDNA, complementary DNA; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; EMT, epithelial-mesenchymal transition; EpCAM, epithelial cell adhesion molecule; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HCV, hepatitis C virus; H&E, hematoxylin-eosin; K19, keratin 19; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; mRNA, messenger RNA; miRNA, microRNA; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SD, standard deviation; uPA, urokinase plasminogen activator; uPAR, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor. R428 mouse This study was performed on two independent cohorts of patients with HCC. The HCCs included in this study were typical HCCs morphologically; cases that could be classified as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma by hematoxylin-eosin
(H&E) or mucin stains were excluded from both cohorts. This study was approved by the ethics committees of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seoul, Korea) and Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea). Cohort 1 consisted of 137 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HCC specimens obtained Ibrutinib from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, from 2003 to 2009. Patients were 15-87 years in age (range, 56.4 ± 12.2, mean ± standard deviation [SD]) and consisted of 108 males and 29 females. Mean follow-up time after surgery was 33.9 months (range, 0-91). Cohort 2 consisted of 237 paraffin-embedded human HCC specimens, surgically resected from January 2000 to December 2009 at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Medical Center. Curative resection was performed for all patients. Major and minor resections were defined as resection of ≥3 segments and ≤2 segments, according
to the Couinaud classification, respectively. The patient population consisted of 189 males and 48 females, and their ages ranged from 24 to 81 years (range, 55.0 ± 10.2, mean ± SD). All patients received no preoperative treatment, such as transarterial Dapagliflozin chemoembolization or radiation. All patients were checked for serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA II) and underwent ultrasonography or dynamic computed tomography every 3-6 months after surgery. Median follow-up time after resection was 21.6 months (range, 1-109). Other important clinical data from each patient were obtained from a careful review of the medical records, including hepatitis B virus surface antigen status, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and albumin levels.