1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies confirmed the presence of uniform spherical nanosized oil droplets of nanoemulsified orlistat. DSC and PXRD studies of MUPS confirmed amorphization of embedded nanoemulsified orlistat. In-vitro selleck chemicals dissolution studies in surfactant-reduced media demonstrated remarkable improvement in dissolution compared to pure orlistat and marketed formulation (Xenical Capsules 120 mg, Hoffman-La Roche, Basle, Switzerland). Comparative in-vitro bovine porcine pancreatic lipase inhibition studies of pure orlistat,
marketed product and developed MUPS showed 13.57- and 2.41-fold higher lipase inhibition with developed MUPS compared to pure orlistat and marketed products, respectively.”
“Background: Exercise training
may improve components of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objective of our pilot randomized controlled study was to determine the benefits of a short intensive inpatient individualized exercise training (IET) program in sedentary untreated OSAS patients. www.selleckchem.com/products/nepicastat-hydrochloride.html Methods: Twenty-two sedentary patients with moderate to severe OSAS were randomly assigned either to one-month education activity sessions (n = 11; control group) or to inpatient rehabilitation program (n = 11), including IET, education activities sessions, and dietary management. Full polysomnography (PSG), OSLER (Oxford Sleep Resistance test), body composition, anthropometric measurements, metabolic syndrome components, and questionnaires were performed at baseline and at study end point. Results: No changes occurred in the control group in all variables. Compared to controls, participants randomized to the IET group presented a significant decrease in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (40.6 +/- 19.4 vs 28.0 +/- 19.3; P smaller than 0.001), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and arousal index, which occurred in conjunction with significant decrease in body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, fat mass,
fasting glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. Increased sleep latency was found in participants in the IET group with altered values at baseline. Conclusions: IET reduced OSAS severity with improvement of metabolic syndrome components with concomitant loss in body fat in sedentary adults. ACY-241 cell line If confirmed on a larger scale, a comprehensive rehabilitation program could constitute an additional or alternative treatment for moderate to severe OSAS patients. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The vascular endothelia express a variety of structural and biological phenotypes. We used an intravital injection method of plant derived lectins (Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Ricinus communis Agglutinin-I (RCA-I), Ulex europaeus Agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Concanavalin A (ConA)) to elucidate the morphology and function of the sinusoidal endothelium of the liver and bone marrow.
Only preincubation with specific anti-S-layer antibodies significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of S-layer proteins, suggesting GNS-1480 chemical structure that this could be attributed to a direct interaction between clostridial toxins and L kefir S-layer protein. Interestingly, the interaction of toxins with S-layer carrying bacteria was observed by dot blot and fluorescence microscopy with specific anti-TcdA or anti-TcdB antibodies, although L kefir cells did not show protective effects. We hypothesize that the interaction between clostridial toxins and soluble S-layer molecules is different from the interaction with S-layer on the surface
of the bacteria thus leading a different ability to antagonize cytotoxic
effect. This is the first report showing the ability of S-layer SRT2104 nmr proteins from kefir lactobacilli to antagonize biological effects of bacterial toxins. These results encourage further research on the role of bacterial surface molecules to the probiotic properties of L kefir and could contribute to strain selection with potential therapeutic or prophylactic benefits towards CDAD. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Surgery to the trunk often results in a change of gait, most pronounced during walking. This change is usually transient, often as a result of wound pain, and returns to normal as the patient recovers. Quantifying and monitoring gait impairment therefore represents a novel means of functional postoperative home recovery follow-up. Until now, this type of assessment could only be made in a gait lab, which is both expensive and labor intensive to administer on a large scale. The objective of this work is to validate the use of an ear-worn
activity recognition (e-AR) sensor for quantification https://www.selleckchem.com/products/prt062607-p505-15-hcl.html of gait impairment after abdominal wall and perianal surgery. The e-AR sensor was used on 2 comparative simulated data sets (N = 32) of truncal impairment to observe walking patterns. The sensor was also used to observe the walking patterns of preoperative and postoperative surgical patients who had undergone abdominal wall (n = 5) and perianal surgery (n = 5). Methods for multiresolution feature extraction, selection, and classification are investigated using the raw ear-sensor data. Results show that the method demonstrates a good separation between impaired and nonimpaired classes for both simulated and real patient data sets. This indicates that the e-AR sensor may be used as a tool for the pervasive assessment of postoperative gait impairment, as part of functional recovery monitoring, in patients at their own homes.”
“Background and Objective. The level of dehydration has been known to be a predisposing factor for the development of decompression sickness in divers.
However, conditional deletion of Wnt4 in interstitial cells did not reduce myofibroblast proliferation, cell number, or myofibroblast gene expression during fibrosis. Because the injured kidney expresses multiple Wnt ligands that might compensate VX-680 purchase for the absence of Wnt4, we generated a mouse model with constitutive activation of canonical Wnt/-catenin signaling in interstitial pericytes and fibroblasts. Kidneys from these mice exhibited spontaneous myofibroblast differentiation in the absence of injury. Taken together, Wnt4 expression in renal fibrosis
defines a population of proliferating medullary myofibroblasts. Although Wnt4 may be dispensable for myofibroblast transformation, canonical Wnt signaling through -catenin stabilization is sufficient to drive spontaneous myofibroblast differentiation in interstitial pericytes and fibroblasts,
emphasizing the importance of this pathway in renal fibrosis.”
“Introduction. Despite advances in therapeutics, graft loss associated with chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) remains high. Urinary proteomic analysis is a noninvasive method that could be used to detect and evaluate CAD in renal transplant recipients. This study was aimed to establish the normal proteome map of stable transplant patients and to validate the utility of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2DE-DIGE) in identifying new candidates as urinary biomarkers of CAD.\n\nMethods. find more Morning spot urine samples that were collected from kidney transplant recipients with biopsy-proven interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) stages 0-I-II/III (n=8/group) under immunosuppressive treatment with tacrolimus plus mycophenolate with or without prednisone.
2DE silver staining and mass spectrometry analyses were used to establish the normal proteome map, and 2DE-DIGE and mass spectrometry were used to identify proteins exhibiting differential abundance.\n\nResults and Conclusions. This study defines the normal proteome of stable renal transplant patients, which is composed of several plasma proteins, as well as of immunologic proteins that are probably specific to transplant recipients. The 2DE-DIGE study showed 19 proteins with HIF inhibitor differential concentrations, depending on the IFTA histologic score. These 19 proteins could be used as urinary biomarkers of the severity of IFTA in renal transplant recipients.”
“A resonance light scattering (RLS) method has been developed using a uranyl (UO22+) specific DNAzyme and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this strategy, the cleavage of the substrate strand (SDNA) of DNAzyme results in releasing a shorter duplex in the presence of UO22+, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs and the increase of RLS intensity. The response signals linearly correlated with the concentration of UO22+ over the range of 1.36 x 10(-8)-1.50 x 10(-7) mol L-1. The limit of detection (LOD) is 4.09 x 10(-9) mol L-1. The method has excellent selectivity and higher sensitivity.
ConclusionThe study has shown that a serum peptide and protein biomarker signature can be used to distinguish CRC patients from healthy controls with high discriminative power. This relatively simple click here and cheap test is promising for
“[Purpose] This study compared the effects of three exercises performed in a prone position on the selective activation of the lumbar erector spinae (LES) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles in healthy males to investigate the effective method for selective activation of the LM. [Subjects] Twenty-two healthy males were recruited. Surface EMG data were collected from the right LES and LM muscles during three exercises: 1) trunk extension, 2) hip extension, and 3) the arm lift. [Results] The ratio of LM to LES EMG activity during hip extension was higher
than those during trunk extension CFTRinh-172 mouse and the arm lift. [Conclusion] Hip extension in a prone position may be effective for selective activation of the lumbar multifidus muscles in healthy males.”
“BACKGROUND: Iron depletion or deficiency in blood donors frequently results in deferrals for low hemoglobin (Hb), yet blood centers remain reluctant to dispense iron replacement therapy to donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: During a 39-month period, 1236 blood donors deferred for a Hb level of less than 12.5 g/dL and 400 nondeferred control donors underwent health history screening and laboratory testing (complete blood counts, iron studies). Iron depletion and deficiency were defined as a ferritin level of 9 to 19 and less than 9 mu g/L in females and 18 to 29 and less than 18 mu g/L in males. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given a 60-pack of 325-mg ferrous sulfate tablets and instructed to take one tablet daily. Another 60-pack was dispensed at all subsequent visits. RESULTS: In the low-Hb group, 30 and 23% of females and 8 and 53% of males had iron depletion or deficiency, respectively, compared with 29 and 10% of females and 18 and 21% of males in the control group. IPI-145 Angiogenesis inhibitor Iron-depleted or -deficient
donors taking iron showed normalization of iron-related laboratory parameters, even as they continued to donate. Compliance with oral iron was 68%. Adverse gastrointestinal effects occurred in 21% of donors. The study identified 13 donors with serious medical conditions, including eight with gastrointestinal bleeding. No donors had malignancies or hemochromatosis. CONCLUSION: Iron depletion or deficiency was found in 53% of female and 61% of male low-Hb donors and in 39% of female and male control donors. Routine administration of iron replacement therapy is safe and effective and prevents the development of iron depletion and deficiency in blood donors.”
“Free volume behavior in polystyrene thin films with thickness ranging from 22 to 1200 nm on silicon substrates was studied by energy variable positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (EVPALS). The films were prepared by spincasting from toluene solutions of 0.5-5.
(C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Asymmetric ortho-lithiation of N-dialkyl-P, P-diphenylphosphinamides using [n-BuLi.(-)-sparteine] is described as an efficient method for the synthesis of P-chiral ortho-functionalized derivatives in high yields and ee’s from 45 to >99%. The VX-770 mouse method allows access to new enantiomerically pure P-chiral phosphine and diimine ligands.”
“Background: Taking intraoperative frozen sections (FS) is a widely used procedure in oncologic surgery. However so far no evidence of an association of FS analysis and premalignant
changes in the surgical margin exists. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of FS on different categories of the final margins of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and lips.\n\nMethods: FS, pT-stage, grading, and tumor localization of 178 patients with SCC of the oral cavity and lips were compared by uni-and multivariate analysis in patients with positive, dysplastic and negative surgical margin status.\n\nResults: Performed on 111 patients (62.4%), intraoperative FS did not have any statistically significant influence on final margin status, independent of whether it was positive (p = 0.40), dysplastic (p = 0.70), or negative (p = 0.70). Positive surgical margins in permanent sections
were significantly associated with pT4-tumors (OR 5.61, p = 0.001). The chance for negative margins in permanent sections ALK activation was significantly higher in tumors located in the tongue (OR 4.70, p = 0.01).\n\nConclusions: Our data suggests that intraoperative FS in SCC can be useful in selected cases. However it is not advisable as a routine approach.”
“Background: Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic headache condition that results selleck inhibitor from the overuse of analgesics drugs, triptans,
or other antimigraine compounds. The epidemiology of drug-induced disorders suggests that medication overuse could lead to nephrotoxicity, particularly in chronic patients. The aim of this work was to confirm and extend the results obtained from a previous study, in which we analyzed the urinary proteome of 3 MOH patients groups: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), triptans and mixtures abusers, in comparison with non-abusers individuals (controls).\n\nMethods: In the present work we employed specialized proteomic techniques, namely two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and the innovative Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), to discover characteristic proteomic profiles associated with MOH condition.\n\nResults: By 2-DE and MS analysis we identified 21 over-excreted proteins in MOH patients, particularly in NSAIDs abusers, and the majority of these proteins were involved in a variety of renal impairments, as resulted from a literature search.
The decay time course of GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) onto POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice is significantly slower than that of sIPSCs in control animals. While analysis of individual miniature IPSCs shows lowered baseline activity, this tonic decrease is associated with an increased amplitude and slow decay of mini-IPSCs onto POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice. Moreover, POMC neurons receive greater total ionic Staurosporine inhibitor flux per GABAergic event in the absence of leptin receptor signaling. In addition, treatment with the alpha 3 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptor modulator SB-205384 enhances GABAergic transmission only onto POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice.
Single-cell RT-PCR analysis further supports the expression of the alpha 3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor on POMC neurons in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP mice. Finally, the responses to the GABA(A) receptor agonist isoguvacine of POMC neurons are significantly smaller in POMC: Lepr(-/-) GFP than in control animals. Therefore our present work demonstrates that loss of leptin signaling in Sapitinib purchase POMC neurons induces synaptic alterations at POMC synapses that may play an essential role in energy homeostasis.”
“A new type of double-stranded DNA targeting format by formation of a Janus-Wedge (J-W) triple helix is described. The “wedge” residue W-1
is used for A-T and T-A base pairs while W-2 is used for G-C and C-G base pairs. Both wedge residues are attached to a PNA backbone that is designed to insert the probe strand into double-stranded DNA and base pair with bothe Watson-Crick faces. To study the stability of such an assembly, we have
examined the formation of the J-W triplex with various sequences.”
“Endosulfan is a potent organochlorinated pesticide that is known to induce side effects in aquatic organisms, including Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). It has been previously shown that endosulfan induces oxidative stress and non-specific activation of splenic macrophages and exacerbated serum interleukin-2 synthesis in Nile tilapia. Endosulfan may promote proliferation of T cells through Selleck AZD8931 MAP kinase (MAPK) activated signal transductions. The ERK family of MAPKs includes ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) molecules are involved in many aspects of cellular survival, and are important for apoptosis or oxidative stress-induced senescence. In order to study the mechanisms by which endosulfan affects fish health, the present study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of this insecticide on proliferation, the ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and cell senescence in splenocytes from Nile tilapia.\n\nLymphoproliferation was evaluated by colorimetric method using the WST-1 assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess pERK1/2, apoptosis and senescence, using Annexin V-FITC and beta-galactosidase respectively.
As a consequence of RER decrease, the increased Cr was markedly attenuated but was still significantly higher at the 8th and 12th hour compared with pre-24TR. Speed was constant over the first 6 h then significantly decreased during the 24TR. HR increased until the sixth hour (i.e., HR drift), then Navitoclax cost decreased until post-24TR.
Furthermore, a significant positive correlation (R = 0.75, P smaller than 0.01) was observed between the velocity sustained during the 24TR (expressed in percentage of the velocity attained at (V)over dotO(2max): %V-(V)over dotO2max) and the pre- to postchanges in Cr. Conclusions: The present study characterized accurately the changes of energy cost and substrate use during an extreme run, showing a plateau after 8 h of exercise. It is also concluded that the participants who maintained the highest %V-(V)over dotO2max were also those having most deteriorated their Cr over the 24TR, supporting the notion of a trade-off between running speed (relative to V-(V)over dotO2max) and Cr.”
“The incidence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in elderly patients
is higher. However, for those with poor fitness, the optimal surgical treatment for those refractory to medical treatment is controversial. The aim of current study was to investigate the long-term outcome of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous radio-frequency thermocoagulation (PRT) for 304 TN patients 70 years or older. We conducted a retrospective study of 304 elderly patients with TN who were treated with CT-guided PRT between 2002 and 2012. Follow-up was censored at the time of last GW786034 mouse contact, additional surgery, or death. Sixty-seven patients
(22.1%) were of more than American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system physical status II. Excellent pain relief was 100% at discharge, 85% at 1 year, 75% at 3 years, 71% at 5 years, and 49% at 10 years. Pain relief outcomes were correlated with facial numbness. Lower temperature group ( smaller than = 75 degrees C) can attain the same long-term pain relief as higher temperature group ( bigger than = 80 degrees C); however, the incidence of painful dysesthesia rate of higher temperature group was higher than LY3023414 lower temperature group. Postoperative morbidity included facial numbness, masseter weakness, corneitis, hearing loss, dropping eyelid, and limited mouth opening. There were no mortalities observed during or after PRT. Our result showed CT-guided PRT is safe and effective for classic TN patients 70 years or older, including poor-fitness patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system physical status bigger than II). Lower temperature ( smaller than = 75 degrees C) is recommended for PRT in the treatment of TN.”
“Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that is released by the majority of central nervous system synapses and is involved in developmental processes, cognitive functions, learning and memory.
As predicted, subjects treated daily with corticosterone healed more
slowly than did controls. In contrast, subjects that had been chased daily healed at the same rate as controls. Surprisingly, repeated chasing did not elevate plasma corticosterone despite causing drops in body mass and survival. Additionally, females healed more slowly than males, possibly due to energetic constraints. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND. Conventional karyorype has an established role in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and is included in the International selleck kinase inhibitor Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) for patient risk stratification and treatment selection. Although some chromosomal abnormalities have been well
characterized, the significance of several miscellaneous, infrequent, single chromosomal abnormalities remains to be defined. In addition, the emerging therapeutic agents may change the natural Course of disease in patients with MDS and the cytogenetic impact on risk stratification.\n\nMETHODS. Clinicopathologic data were retrieved on 1029 patients who had a diagnosis of primary MDS and had available cytogenetic data (karyotype) on file.\n\nRESULTS. Cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in 458 patients (45%) and occurred most frequently in patients who had refractory anemia with excess blasts (62%). Overall, the 3 cytogenetic risk groups defined by the IPSS-good, intermediate, and poor-effectively stratified selleck chemicals llc the patients’ overall survival (OS) (64 months, 31 months, and 12 months, respectively; P < .001). With the exception of gain of chromosome 8, single cytogenetic abnormalities within
the intermediate group were extremely infrequent in the series but demonstrated variable OS ranging from 10 months for patients who had isochromosome (17q) to 69 months for patients who had deletion of 12p [del(12p)], suggesting different prognostic significance. In the poor cytogenetic risk group, patients with isolated del(7q) EVP4593 and derivative (1;7)(q10;p10) had a significantly better median OS than patients who had either loss of chromosome 7 or a complex karyotype (P < .05).\n\nCONCLUSIONS. The Current data generated from a large cohort of patients with primary MDS indicated that some specific cytogenetic abnormalities carry different risk than their IPSS cytogenetic risk-group assignment, especially in the new treatment era. Because of the extreme low frequency, additional combined studies are needed to better categorize some rare single cytogenetic abnormalities within the intermediate cytogenetic risk group. Cancer 2008;113:3331-40. (C) 2008 American Cancer Society.”
“Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of acute endophthalmitis, and infection with this virulent bacterium is often associated with a poor visual outcome.
Limited information was found on recruitment rates and the success of recruitment strategies. Barriers to recruitment identified in the literature included degree of patient illness, lack of interest/perceived benefit, insufficient time, socio-demographic factors and negative clinician attitudes. Our pilot study identified 72 eligible couples of which 66 were approached. Our recruitment strategies resulted in six couples consenting (9.1%) but only three couples completing the study (4.5%). The main reasons for study refusal were the intervention was not needed, lack of interest, insufficient time, patient illness and travel distance.\n\nRecruitment
for couple-based psychotherapy interventions is challenging. More work is required on developing acceptable and feasible recruitment processes for metastatic cancer patients to be able to access support.”
“Background: Strategies for combating increasing childhood obesity is called for. School settings Ro-3306 molecular weight have been pointed out as potentially effective settings for prevention. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of four additional Physical Education (PE) lessons/week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8-13.\n\nMethods: Children attending 2nd to 4th grade (n = 632) in 10 public schools, 6 intervention and 4 control
schools, participated in this longitudinal study during 2 school years. Outcome measures: Primary: Body Mass Index (BMI) and www.selleckchem.com/products/crenolanib-cp-868596.html Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%) derived from Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary: the moderating effect of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and adiposity based on TBF% cut offs for gender.\n\nResults: Intervention effect on BMI and TBF% (BMI: beta-0.14, 95% CI:
-0.33; 0.04, TBF%: beta-0.08, 95% CI:-0.65; 0.49) was shown insignificant. However, we found significant beneficial intervention effect on prevalence of OW/OB based on BMI (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11; 0.72). The intervention effect on adiposity based on TBF% cut offs was borderline significant (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0. 39; 1.05).\n\nConclusion: Four additional PE lessons/week at school DAPT concentration can significantly improve the prevalence of OW/OB in primary schoolchildren. Mean BMI and TBF% improved in intervention schools, but the difference with controls was not significant. The intervention had a larger effect in children who were OW/OB or adipose at baseline.”
“The estimation of covariance matrices is a crucial step in several statistical tasks. Especially when using few samples of a high dimensional representation of shapes, the standard maximum likelihood estimation (ML) of the covariance matrix can be far from the truth, is often rank deficient, and may lead to unreliable results. In this paper, we discuss regularization by prior knowledge using maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates. We compare ML to MAP using a number of priors and to Tikhonov regularization.
\n\nResults: PPAR-Y expression was identified in all experimental groups except for the control. The cytokine mixture-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with rosiglitazone (P<0.01). However, this inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone was not reversed by BADGE.\n\nConclusion: These suggest that rosiglitazone induces the PPAR-Y
expression and it may inhibit the cytokine mixture-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production through the PPAR-Y independent pathway. The inhibitory mechanisms of rosiglitazone on the cytokine mixture-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells remain to be further investigated.”
“Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a common systemic disorder Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor characterised by the ossification of the anterior longitudinal spinal ligament involving at least three contiguous vertebrae and by diffuse extraspinal enthesopathies. The condition is associated with the male sex and with advanced age; its aetiology is uncertain, but seems to be related to obesity and diabetes. The most recent studies in archaeological series demonstrated a relation between high social status and the incidence of DISH. The P5091 in vivo present study examines two cases of DISH found amongst the members of the Medici family buried in the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence. The skeletons of the
Grand Dukes Cosimo I (1519-1574) and his son Ferdinand I (1549-1609) showed the typical features of the condition. This result is related to the obesity of the Grand Dukes, attested by the written and artistic sources, and to the
protein-based alimentation demonstrated by a paleonutritional Cl-amidine molecular weight study, thus furnishing further evidence to the significance of DISH as a life style.”
“The X-ray diffraction analysis on single crystals obtained from the self-assembly of 1,8-diiodoperfluorooctane 1 with the tetraazahelicene derivative 2 revealed a site-selective pattern of halogen bonds (XBs) in the solid state. Indeed, two non-equivalent XBs drive the formation of an indefinitely repeating pentameric (1)3 center dot(2)2 unit. Interestingly, the N…I-C bonding formation occurred selectively on the pyridazinic/cinnolinic nitrogen atoms of the tetraazahelicene unit, which were preferred over the pyridinic/quinolinic ones. On the basis of molecular electrostatic potential and molecular orbital analyses, DFT calculations predicted and explained well this site-selective XB formation, thus demonstrating to be efficient tools for the prediction of the XB site selectivity in similar polynitrogen systems.”
“In general, the mechanism of protein translocation through the apicoplast membrane requires a specific extension of a functionally important region of the apicoplast-targeted proteins. The corresponding signal peptides were detected in many apicomplexans but not in the majority of apicoplast-targeted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii. In T.